This alternative conceptual ideology suggests three novel primary mechanisms for the formation of gravitationally-bound objects:
– Flip-flop fragmentation (FFF)
– Hybrid accretion
– Flip-flop fragmentation (FFF), forming gas/ice-giant planets, brown dwarfs and companion stars:
¶ FFF suggests that excess angular momentum in collapsing molecular clouds may create accretion disks that are much more massive than their diminutive cores, and thus inertially dominate the system. Inertial dominance may initiate disk instability, which condenses 1 or 2 objects more massive than the central core. The more massive disk instability object(s) cause an inertial flip-flop where the diminutive core is injected into a satellite orbit around the much-larger, younger disk instability object(s).
¶ These former core satellites evolve into gas giant planets, brown dwarfs or companion stars. ‘Symmetrical FFF’ condenses a twin-binary pair of disk instability objects, while ‘asymmetrical FFF’ condenses a solitary disk instability object.
– Trifurcation, forming twin-binary pairs, such as, Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune, & Venus-Earth:
¶ Trifurcation suggests that when symmetrical FFF condenses a twin-binary pair of disk instability objects, the twin-binary pair are capable of rotationally fragmenting the central core into 3 components, hence, trifurcation.
¶ During orbital interplay between the twin-binary pair of disk-instability objects and the diminutive central core, hyperbolic-trajectory close encounters transfer kinetic energy from the more-massive twin-binary components to the less-massive core by the mechanism of equipartition. Successive kinetic energy kicks ultimately evaporate the former core into a circumbinary orbit around the much-larger twin-binary pair.
¶ These close encounters also tend to transfer rotational kinetic energy to the core, which may cause the core to spin up to the point of distorting the core into a bar-mode instability. Additional rotational pumping may cause the bar-mode arms to pinch off into separate gravitationally-bound Roche spheres orbiting around the diminutive residual core in a process designated, ‘trifurcation’. Trifurcation, in turn, promotes next-generation trifurcation of the residual core, possibly forming multi generations of twin binary pairs. Trifurcation is the suggested origin of 4 sets of twin-binary pairs in our solar system, namely, (former) binary-Companion, Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune, and Venus-Earth, with Mercury as the final residual core.
– Hybrid accretion, nominally forming super-Earths:
¶ Hybrid accretion (Thayne Curie 2005) is a suggested planet formation mechanism for forming planets by the hybrid mechanism of forming planetesimals by streaming instability followed by core accretion of these streaming-instability planetesimals. Trillions of planetesimals presumably condense by streaming instability against the magnetic corotation radius at the inside edge of protoplanetary disks. When core accretion reaches the nominal mass of a super-Earth around a solar-mass star, the newly-formed hybrid-accretion planet is able to clear its orbit, effectively pushing the inner edge of the accretion disk out to its outer resonances.
¶ Thereafter, a second generation of planetesimals may condense by streaming instability to form a second-generation hybrid-accretion planet. In this manor a cascade of hybrid-accretion planets may form from the inside out. Hybrid-accretion moons may also form by this mechanism, such as the larger planemo moons of Uranus.
A brief history of the solar system:
1) Symmetrical FFF — binary-Sun (disk-instability objects) + Brown Dwarf* (original core)
2) First-generation trifurcation — binary-Companion + SUPER-Jupiter* (residual core)
3) Second-generation trifurcation — Jupiter-Saturn + SUPER-Neptune* (residual core)
4) Third-generation trifurcation — Uranus-Neptune + SUPER-Earth* (residual core)
5) Fourth-generation trifurcation — Venus-Earth + Mercury(?) (residual core)
¶ A diminutive Brown Dwarf system with a much-more-massive accretion disk underwent symmetrical FFF, condensing a twin-binary pair of disk instability objects. The much greater overlying mass of the twin-binary disk-instability protostars resulted in an intertial flip-flop, where the diminutive Brown Dwarf core was evaporated into a circumbinary orbit around the twin-binary components, which concomitantly spiraled in to form binary-Sun. Equipartition during orbital close encounters not only evaporated Brown Dwarf outward, but also caused the core to spin-up and trifurcate, fragmenting Brown Dwarf into a twin-binary pair with presumed super-Jupiter-mass components. Since trifurcation engenders next-generation trifurcation by equipartition spin up, 1st-generation trifurcation engendered three successive generations of trifurcations, forming 2nd-generation Jupiter-Saturn, 3rd-generation Uranus-Neptune and 4th-generation Venus-Earth, with a leftover residual core, Mercury(?). The twin binary pair of super-Jupiters remained gravitationally bound to form binary-Companion, which orbited the solar system barycenter a few hundred AU from binary-Sun for 4 billion years. Binary-Sun spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma in a luminous red nova, and binary-Companion ultimately spiraled in to merge some 4 billion years later, presumably around 650 Ma, in an asymmetrical merger explosion that gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. Mars may be a diminutive hybrid-accretion planet that originally formed around Brown Dwarf.
* Note, unorthodox capitalization indicates unorthodox definitions. ‘SUPER-Jupiter’, ‘SUPER-Neptune’ and ‘SUPER-Earth’ are the names for the objects from which Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune and Venus-Earth arose respectively by trifurcation, although the objects may not have met the size requirements for orthodox super status. ‘Brown Dwarf’ is the name of the original solar system core, which experienced symmetrical FFF, followed by (at least) 4 generations of trifurcation. ‘Binary-Sun’ is the name of the binary stellar pair that spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma to form the sun, and ‘binary-Companion’ is the name of the former binary companion to the sun, whose binary components likely had the mass of high-end super-Jupiters, near the brown dwarf threshold.
Star formation stages:
1) Starless core: May be a transient phase or may progress to gravitational instability infall
2) Prestellar core: A gravitating prestellar core ends with the formation of the second hydrostatic core when hydrogen gas endothermically dissociates into atomic hydrogen at around 2000 K.
3) Protostar (Class 0, I, II, III): Begins with the formation of the second hydrostatic core.
4) Pre-main-sequence star: A T Tauri, FU Orionis, or larger (unnamed) pre-main-sequence star powered by gravitational contraction
5) Main-sequence star: Powered by hydrogen fusion
“Starless cores are possibly transient concentrations of molecular gas and dust without embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), typically observed in tracers such as C18O (e.g. Onishi et al. 1998), NH3 (e.g. Jijina, Myers, & Adams 1999), or dust extinction (e.g. Alves et al. 2007), and which do not show evidence of infall. Prestellar cores are also starless (M⋆ = 0) but represent a somewhat denser and more centrally-concentrated population of cores which are self-gravitating, hence unlikely to be transient.” (André et al. 2008)
In Jeans instability, the cloud collapses at an approximately free-fall rate nearly isothermally at about 10 K until the center become optically thick at ~10-13 g/cm3 after 105 yr (Larson 1969), at which point when the temperature begins to rise, forming a ‘first core’ or first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Supersonically infalling gas in the envelope is decelerated and thermalized at the surface of the first core (Masunaga et al. 1998).
When the temperature reaches about 2000 K, the hydrogen begins to dissociate endothermically, forming a ‘second core’, the birth of a protostar. The protostar grows in mass by accreting the infalling material from the circumstellar envelope, while the protostar keeps its radius at ~4 R☉ during the main accretion phase. (Masunaga et al. 1998)
“Enoch et al. (2009a) discovered a massive circumstellar disk of ∼1 M☉ comparable to a central protostar around a Class 0 object, indicating that (1) the disk already exists in the main accretion phase and (2) the disk mass is significantly larger than the theoretical
prediction.” (Machida et al. 2011)
“The size of the first core was found to vary somewhat in the different simulations (more unstable clouds form smaller first cores) while the size, mass, and temperature of the second cores are independent of initial cloud mass, size, and temperature.
Conclusions. Our simulations support the idea of a standard (universal) initial second core size of ~ 3 × 10−3 AU and mass ~ 1.4 ×10−3 M☉.”
(Vaytet et al. 2013)
“Class 0 objects are the youngest accreting protostars observed right after point mass formation, when most of the mass of the system is still in the surrounding dense core/envelope (Andre et al. 2000).”
(Chen et al. 2012)
“The compact components around the Class 0 protostars could be the precursors to these Keplerian disks. However, it is unlikely that such massive rotationally supported disks could be stably supported given the expected low stellar mass for the Class 0 protostars: they should be prone to fragmentation”.
(Zhi-Yun Li et al. 2014)
Hybrid accretion planets and moons:
An alternative planet formation mechanism proposed by Thayne Curie 2005 marries streaming instability with core accretion in a hybrid planet formation mechanism, designated here as, ‘hybrid accretion’.
Thayne Curie suggests this as a planet formation mechanism for forming gas/ice giant planets. Alternatively, this mechanism is suggested here as the mechanism for nominally-forming terrestrial super-Earths, rather than gas/ice giant planets with elevated gas concentrations.
Planetesimals are suggested to condense by streaming instability against a young stellar object’s magnetic corotation radius, at the inner edge of the accretion disk. These planetesimals may core accrete to form a hybrid accretion planet. When the hybrid-accretion planet reaches the nominal size of a super-Earth around a solitary Sun-sized star, super-Earth is able to clear its orbit of gas, dust and planetesimals, effectively pushing the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk out to its strongest outer resonances. Thereafter, a second generation of planetesimals may ‘condense’ by streaming instability against the super-Earth’s outer resonances, which may core accrete to form a second-generation super-Earth. In this way a multiple-generation ‘cascade’ of super-Earths may form from the inside out in low warm/hot orbits around solitary stars. Additionally, the process should create an asteroid belt beyond the hybrid accretion cascade comprised of leftover planetesimals.
The size of hybrid accretion planets will be a function of the central object’s mass, and indirectly its magnetic field strength, rotation rate and protoplanetary disk density, which sets the magnetic corotation radius. Debris disks may also form hybrid accretion planets, but debris disks will more likely form a solitary immature hybrid accretion planet, along with a smattering of smaller minor planets and an asteroid belt beyond. The high dust component of debris disks will presumably condense much-much-larger planetesimals than a more-gaseous protoplanetary disk. Mars is suggested to be a hybrid accretion planet formed around Brown Dwarf, prior to symmetrical FFF which condensed the stellar binary-Sun components from the oversized accretion disk. If most hybrid accretion objects found to date are in the super-Earth-mass range, it’s presumably because we’ve concentrated our searches for exoplanets around solar-mass dwarf stars. Larger stars, however, more often form in binary pairs or larger multiple-star systems, which are presumably not conducive to forming hybrid accretion planets.
Streaming instability planetesimals presumably condense at the inner edge of accretion disks around giant planets, as well. The 5 planemo moons of Uranus; Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon, are perhaps the best example of a moony hybrid-accretion cascade in our solar system. At Saturn, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, excepting Titan and presumably including Iapetus are a likely hybrid-accretion cascade of moons as well.
The observed pattern of Uranian moons, tending to increase in size with orbital distance but not tending to decrease in density is the suggested pattern of hybrid accretion, where the most distant planemo moon in a hybrid-accretion cascade may break the pattern, if it hadn’t reached maturity before the accretion disk dissipated.
– Hybrid Mechanisms for Gas/Ice Giant Planet Formation (Thayne Currie 2005),
– And section; CASCADE FORMATION OF SUPER-EARTHS BY HYBRID CORE ACCRETION OF PLANETESIMALS ‘CONDENSED’ BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY AT THE INNER EDGE OF ACCRETION DISKS
Flip Flop Fragmentation (FFF):
This is an alternative conceptual ideology for the formation of gas/ice giant planets, brown dwarf satellites and companion stars around a larger central star, formed by a flip-flop process in which the system turns itself inside out. This suggests that ice/gas giant planets, brown dwarf planets, and companion stars may be the progenitors of their host star, and thus older than their host stars. Satellite objects formed by FFF are suggested to form in systems in which the accretion disk inertially dominates the system, that is, when the accretion disk is much more massive than than its central prestellar/protostellar object.
FFF (disk instability) of massive disks surrounding diminutive prestellar or protostellar objects is suggested to occur by means of (spiral) density waves, where the mode of the density wave dictates the type of disk instability. Two types of density-wave modes may undergo FFF:
1) an asymmetrical (m = 1 mode) density wave, which may condense a solitary disk instability object in a process designated, ‘asymmetrical FFF’, and
2) a symmetrical (m = 2 mode) density wave, which may condense a twin-binary pair of disk instability objects in a process designated, ‘symmetrical FFF’.
In collapsing dark cores with ‘insufficient’ specific angular momentum, the core mass is always sufficient to exert negative-feedback damping on the surrounding disk, preventing disk instability. In a collapsing dark core with ‘excess’ angular momentum, however, the disk will grow faster than the core, since infall onto the core is limited by the rate of outward angular momentum transfer. When a disk becomes much more massive than its diminutive core, the disk inertia dominates the system. When the disk inertia begins to dominate a system with an asymmetrical density wave, the disk-core feedback presumably changes from negative to positive, promoting runaway disk instability, as positive disk-core feedback progressively amplifies disk inhomogeneities. The center-seeking nature of a massive disk around a relatively-diminutive core presumably distorts the system, moving the center of gravity of the system away from the core. If the center of gravity of the system moves away from the core to the extent the accompanying distortion of the disk attains a Jeans mass, (asymmetrical FFF) disk instability may occur, creating a new, more-massive Roche sphere around the collapsing disk instability.
Asymmetrical FFF planets are alternatively designated, ‘spin-off planets’, since they form as cores which spin off into satellite orbits.
Asymmetrical FFF may occur repeatedly in the same system, when high-angular-momentum gas continues to infall onto the disk following asymmetrical FFF, causing the disk inertia to again dominate the system.
Spin-off planets may initially orbit the system barycenter at a considerable distance from an incipient disk instability, only to gradually spiral in to a much tighter orbit over time as the incipient core gradually gains mass by infalling gas from the surrounding accretion disk, as in-spiraling and infalling gas bypasses the spin-off planet.
Mini-Neptunes, with hydrogen-helium atmospheres, may be the most prevalent planets in the galaxy, but their low mass compared to gas-giant planets and high metallically suggest either an alternative formation mechanism to Jeans instability followed by asymmetrical FFF, or point to a catastrophic loss of hydrogen and helium following asymmetrical FFF. Alternatively, perhaps cosmic dust in a dark core may undergo sedimentation prior to Jeans instability, forming an icy core which undergoes asymmetrical FFF prior to attaining a sufficient mass to hold on to a significant hydrogen and helium component.
The importance of disk-core feedback in a system with a symmetrical density wave, resulting in symmetrical FFF, is less clear. In asymmetrical FFF, the flip-flop mechanism is inertial, automatically shifting the center of gravity of the system from the lower mass core towards the more-massive disk instability. And conservation of angular momentum puts the diminutive core into a barycentric satellite orbit around the incipient disk instability. In symmetrical FFF the flip-flop process is not automatic but dynamic, requiring an intermediate ‘interplay’ phase, in which the tertiary components (the twin-binary pair and the diminutive core) compete for central dominance of the system. Interplay invokes equipartition of kinetic energy, which gradually ‘evaporates’ the diminutive core into a hierarchical circumbinary orbit around the twin-binary pair, as the disk-instability twin-binary pair sinks inward to conserve system energy and angular momentum.
L1448 IRS3B (See Figure 1):
¶ The Class 0 protostar system, L1448 IRS3B, is suggested to have formed by symmetrical FFF. This triple system is composed of a similar-sized binary pair, IRS3B-a & IRS3B-b, with a combined mass of ~ 1 M☉ in a 61 AU binary orbit, and a distant tertiary companion, IRS3B-c, that has a minimum mass of of ~ 0.085 M☉ at a separation of 183 AU from the binary pair. This system may become more hierarchical over time, coming to resemble the Alpha Centauri system at half the mass.
¶ “Thus we expect the [L1448 IRS3B] orbits to evolve on rapid timescales (with respect to the expected stellar lifetime), especially as the disk dissipates. A natural outcome of this dynamical instability is the formation of a more hierarchical system with a tighter (few AU) inner pair and wider (100s to 1,000s AU) tertiary, consistent with observed triple systems.”
(Tobin et al. 2016)
¶ The tertiary star, IRS3B-c, is embedded in a spiral arm of the outer disk, where the spiral arm has an estimated mass of 0.3 M☉. The standard model of companion star formation expressed by Tobin et al. suggests that IRS3B-c formed in situ by gravitational instability from the spiral disk, making IRS3B-c younger than IRS3B-a & IRS3B-b, but problematically, circumbinary IRS3B-c is brighter at at 1.3 mm and 8 mm than its much more massive siblings, as is clearly apparent in the image above. Alternatively, the brighter tertiary companion, IRS3B-c, appears to refute the standard model and support the alternative asymmetrical FFF origin, attributing greater brightness to greater age, making the diminutive companion the progenitor of the younger, larger twin-binary pair.
Hot Jupiter and cold Jupiter spin-off planets:
(See Figure 2)
The distinct bimodal distribution of gas-giant exoplanets into hot Jupiters in low ‘hot’ orbits and ‘cold Jupiters’ in much-higher ‘cold’ orbits suggests a primary mechanism, rather than the secondary mechanism proposed by the standard model of core accretion followed by secondary planetary migration. The bimodal distribution is suggested to be the result of a temporal hiatus in spinning off prestellar/protostellar cores by the asymmetrical FFF mechanism.
Hot Jupiters are defined as gas-giant exoplanets with low (hot) orbits around their host stars, with orbital periods of less than 10 days. Hot Jupiters are suggested to spin off during the prestellar phase of a nascent star system when the core is in freefall, prior to the formation of a first hydrostatic core (FHSC).
By comparison cold Jupiters orbit their host stars at an average distance of about 2 AU. Most cold Jupiters are also suggested to spin off by the asymmetrical FFF mechanism, but cold Jupiters are suggested to spin off during the later protostellar phase of a nascent star system, after the formation of a second hydrostatic core (SHSC). The difference in age between younger prestellar systems spinning off hot Jupiters and older protostellar systems spinning off cold Jupiters may be attributed to larger accretion disks around older protostellar systems, which give older spin-off cores a greater flip-flop boost that translates into higher colder orbits. And the distinct bimodal separation between the two groups is attributed to a temporal hiatus in asymmetrical FFF spin off, during the circa 1000 year duration of the first hydrostatic core (FHSC).
– Hot Jupiters: Spin off by asymmetrical FFF during the early prestellar phase
– Bimodal gap: No spin-off planets formed during the puffy FHSC phase
– Cold Jupiters: Spin off by asymmetrical FFF during the later protostellar phase
The distinct bimodal separation between the two populations is presumably caused by a hiatus in asymmetrical FFF during the circa 1000 year first hydrostatic core (FHSC) phase. The puffiness of the FHSC phase may viscously connect the core with the accretion disk, preventing the necessary positive feedback between the disk and the core from amplifying into full-fledged disk instability. The outer shock front of the FHSC phase extends out to radii on the order of ~ 5–10 AU (Tsitali et al. 2013), which would extend well beyond the inner edge of a protoplanetary accretion disk.
In a prestellar object, the potential energy released by gas undergoing freefall accretion is radiated away, largely by dust and chemical compounds, notably carbon monoxide, maintaining the core temperature at around 10 K. When the core density reaches about 10^13 g cm-3, it becomes optically thick to infrared radiation, causing the internal temperature to rise. This rise in temperature creates a ‘first hydrostatic core’ (FHSC), with compression becoming approximately adiabatic. The FHSC phase is thought to last about 1000 years, by which time the core temperature rises to about 2000 K. At around 2000K, the core undergoes a brief ‘second collapse’, on the order of 0.1 yr, caused by the endothermic dissociation of molecular hydrogen. Following the fleetingly-brief second collapse, the prestellar object transitions to a ‘second hydrostatic core’ (SHSC) phase to become a protostar.
By comparison with a ~ 5–10 AU FHSC diameter, the initial radius of the SHSC is only about 1.3 solar radii (Larson 1969). “The [second hydrostatic] core then begins to lose a significant amount of energy through the combined effects of convective energy transport from the interior and radiative energy losses from the surface layers; as a result the core contracts by a significant factor in radius. This phase of the evolution, represented in Fig. 3 by the section of the curve between approximately 10 and 100 years after the formation of the stellar core, is quite analogous to the pre-main sequence contraction of a star along the ‘Hayashi track’.” (Larson 1969)
Our solar system’s three twin binary pairs of planets, consisting of Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune and Venus-Earth, suggest a third planet formation mechanism, designated ‘trifurcation’. Trifurcation may occur during the interplay phase of symmetrical FFF, during which equipartition causes the more-massive twin-binary-pair components to transfer orbital kinetic energy to the smaller core during hyperbolic-trajectory close encounters. In addition to this orbital energy and angular momentum transfer, equipartition in close orbital encounters is also suggested to transfer rotational energy and angular momentum to the core, causing an increase in the rotational rate, or a ‘spin up’. Scheeres et al. 2000 calculates that the rotation rate of asteroids tends to increase in close encounters of asteroids with larger planemo objects.
As rotational spin up causes a core to begin to exceed its self gravity, the core is distorted into a bar-mode instability which ultimately fails in the form of ‘trifurcation’. In trifurcation, the self gravity of bilaterally-symmetrical bar-mode arms causes the arms to pinch off into new gravitationally-bound Roche spheres, orbiting the diminutive residual core from which they pinched off. So a solitary Roche sphere distorted into a bar-mode instability is transformed into a trinary system composed of
a twin-binary pair of disk-instability objects in Galilean orbits around the residual Roche sphere of the diminutive residual core.
At the instant of trifurcation, the trinary components closely resemble a vastly-smaller version of the trinary components of symmetrical FFF, in that both systems are comprised of a twin binary pair orbiting a much smaller core–a ‘former core’ in the case of symmetrical FFF and a ‘residual core’ in the case of trifurcation. And exactly like symmetrical FFF, the triple components of trifurcation undergo interplay, including the equipartition transfer of orbital and rotational energy and angular momentum transfer from the the larger twin-binary components to the much-smaller residual-core component. And like symmetrical FFF, equipartition of kinetic energy in the interplay between trifurcation trinary components can cause next-generation trifurcation in the residual core. Trifurcation can apparently foster next-generation trifurcation far-more efficiently than symmetrical FFF can foster trifurcation to begin with, noting the relative abundance of triple-star systems with (similar-sized) twin binary pairs having much-smaller companions (such as Alpha Centauri and L1448 IRS3B), compared to the often observed uniqueness of our solar system, with its suggested four generations of trifurcation:
In our own solar system, symmetrical FFF lead to 4 generations of trifurcation, which created successively-smaller twin binary pairs, like Russian nesting dolls:
1) 1st-gen trifurcation of Brown Dwarf = binary-Companion + SUPER-Jupiter
2) 2nd-gen trifurcation of SUPER-Jupiter = Jupiter-Saturn + SUPER-Neptune
3) 3rd-gen trifurcation of SUPER-Neptune = Uranus-Neptune + SUPER-Earth
4) 4th-gen trifurcation of SUPER-Earth = Venus-Earth + Mercury(?)
Trifurcation is essentially a fractionation process which pinches off the more volatile components into the bar-mode arms, compared to the denser elements which are left behind in the residual core. Thus in the trifurcation of the SUPER-Jupiter residual core, more of the volatile hydrogen and helium was pinched off in the Jupiter-Saturn twin-binary pair, leaving behind a higher rocky-iron percentage in the SUPER-Neptune residual core. Thus each succeeding generation of twin-binary components is composed of higher-density elements, winding up with residual-core Mercury(?) having a proportionately-larger iron-nickel core than its twin-binary siblings, Venus and Earth. Alterntively, only the Venus-Earth binary pair sunk into the inner solar system, while the residual core evaporated out of the trinary prior to sinking inward by binary mass segretation, in which case the residual core was lost from the planetary realm and Mercury is a hybrid-accretion asteroid formed from the secondary debris disk from the binary spiral-in merger of former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma.
Trifurcation makes makes predictions (unlike pebble/core accretion), such as multiple generations of twin binary pairs in size regression with density progression.
The dynamics in multiple trifurcation generations may become rather chaotic, with orbital close encounters between between twin binary pairs and their residual core tending to make the twin binary pairs spiral in toward ultimate merger, while orbital close encounters of twin binary pairs with their parent twin binary components will tend to make them spiral out toward separation. In our own solar system, the twin-binary symmetrical FFF components are suggested to have spiraled in to for former binary-Sun, which ultimately merge at 4,567 Ma, and the twin-binary super-Jupiter-mass components are suggested to have spiraled in to form former binary-Companion, which ultimately merged 4 billion years later at 650 Ma, while the 3 planetary twin-binary pairs spiraled out and separated to form 6 planets.
The bar-mode instability pathway of trifurcation predicts that in the trifurcation of an internally-differentiated object, the residual core should acquire a higher density than its much-larger twin binary pair siblings. I.e.., in the trifurcation of a rocky-iron SUPER-Earth with an internally-differentiated iron-nickel core, lower density crust and mantle material should be preferentially centrifugally slung into the bar-mode arms that pinch off to form the twin-binary pair, while a larger proportion of the denser core material should remain in the residual core. And indeed Mercury(?) has a proportionately-larger iron-nickel core than Earth, although Earth just barely edges out Mercury in density due to the compression of its much-higher gravity. Third-generation trifurcation-product Uranus also has lower density than second-generation trifurcation-product Jupiter, presumably for the same reason, with Uranus presumably having a proportionately-larger iron-nickel core than Jupiter. So each generation of twin-binary pairs should be composed of material with a higher density than its proceeding generation.
FFF and trifurcation are suggested catastrophic mechanisms for increasing system entropy by projecting mass inward. While trifurcation reduces subsystem entropy by trifurcating a residual core, this decrease in entropy must be more than offset by an increase in entropy of the larger system, generally by causing a larger twin binary pair to spiral inward.
¶ Since the iron core of Earth’s Moon is disproportionately small compared to Earth’s iron core, the Moon is apparently not the residual core of twin-binary Venus-Earth, captured by Earth. An alternative origin story is suggested by the structure of bar-mode instabilities, as a nascent phase of trifurcation. A conspicuous component of the bar-mode instability structure is the twin pair of tails, which trail behind the twin bar-mode arms, as depicted in this Dynamical Bar-mode Instability simulation. A somewhat volatile-enriched ‘pinch-off moon’ is suggested to form when the self gravity of a trailing tail causes it to pinch off from its host bar-mode arm to form an independent moony Roche sphere, gravitationally bound to its host bar-mode arm.
¶ In addition to Earth’s oversized Moon, Titan at Saturn and Triton at Neptune are suggested to have formed as pinch off moons, with all other moons as captured moons, hybrid accretion moons or streaming instability condensates which escaped hybrid accretion merger.
¶ Triton’s retrograde orbit around Neptune suggests the intriguing possibility that pinch-off moons may form around their host planets in almost equal proportions of prograde and retrograde orbits. This suggests the possibility of a former retrograde pinch-off moon of Venus whose orbit decayed to spiral in to merge with Venus at 541 Ma, entirely resurfacing the planet and contaminating Earth with former Venusian lifeforms, causing the Cambrian Explosion on Earth.
Hybrid accretion moons:
¶ Cascades of hybrid accretion moons apparently form around gas- and ice-giant planets, similar to the cascades of hybrid-accretion super-earths which form around dwarf stars. The large planemo moons of Uranus are the best example of an untruncated cascade of hybrid accretion moons in our solar system, with the 4 Galilean moons of Jupiter as an example of an apparent truncated cascade. Possessing a pinch-off moon does apparently does not preclude the subsequent formation of hybrid accretion moons, such as the planemo moons of Saturn inside the orbit of Titan, and likely including Iapetus beyond Saturn.
Mars and Oort cloud comets:
If an unknown process produced extensive
aqueous alteration in the material that formed
cometary meteorites, then CI chondrites are the
meteorites most likely to be cometary, since they
match most of the other characteristics, including
chemical composition, strength, relative abundance,
and abundance of interstellar grains.
(Campins & Swindle 1998)
Mars and the Oort cloud comets may be the original denizens of the Brown Dwarf system, with Oort cloud comets having formed by streaming instability, either against the magnetic corotation radius of the Brown Dwarf itself, or against the outer resonances of Mars or other former hybrid-accretion planets of a former potential cascade of hybrid-accretion planets.
This origin for Mars (and a trifurcation origin for the other planets) would make Mars the oldest planet in the solar system.
The leftover planetesimals from the hybrid-accretion of Mars around Brown Dwarf have been scattered into the Oort cloud or out of the solar system altogether by the chaotic upheaval of symmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcation of Brown Dwarf. And any remaining Brown Dwarf planetesimals were presumably vaporized by the binary-Sun-merger luminous red nova at 4,567 Ma, but a few may have been reintroduced in the form of CI chondrites.
The presumed Brown Dwarf protoplanetary disk former origin of CI chondrites suggests a close affinity with Mars, and indeed CI chondrites lie very near the Martian fractionation line. CI chondrites have a ∆17O (‰) of +0.41 (Burbine & O’Brien 2004), compared to the Martian fractionation line of +0.321 ± 0.013‰ (Franchi et al. 1999). If the ∆17O difference between Mars meteorites and CI chondrites is the result of KBO contamination during the late heavy bombardment, when Mars was presumably peppered with hot classical KBO population which lie on the TFL (with a ∆17O of 0.0‰), then the Martian surface magma sampled by Martian meteorites is contaminated with 22% KBO input.
¶ Venus is suggested to be Earth’s twin from the fourth-generation SUPER-Earth trifurcation. Venus may be Earth’s twin in another way as well, if Venus formerly had a pinch-off moon, similar to Earth’s moon in size and composition. Venus’ moon, however, was presumably in a doomed retrograde orbit like Triton around Neptune. Triton’s decaying orbit will spiral in to merge with Neptune in about 3.6 billion years, while Venus’ former pinch-off moon may have already done so in a ‘Venusian cataclysm’ at 541 Myr. A Venusian cataclysm caused by the spiral-in merger of a former retrograde moon would explain why the surface of Venus has been ‘recently’ resurfaced. The nearly-random spatial distribution of Venus’ low crater count suggests 300-500 Myr resurfacing (Price & Suppe 1994), or 300-1000 Myr resurfacing (McKinnon et al. 1997).
¶ Pancake-shaped coronae on Venus, caused by mantle upwelling, may be evidence of a protracted digestion of its former moon, with Venus’s sulfurous atmosphere presumably sustained by continued volcanic outgassing. “Sulphur dioxide is a million times more abundant in the atmosphere of Venus than that of Earth, possibly as a result of volcanism on Venus within the past billion years.” (Marcq et al 2013)
¶ The sudden appearance of all modern phyla on Earth in the Cambrian Explosion is consistent with the catastrophic merger explosion contamination of Earth by our closest planetary neighbor, if Venus rather than Earth were the original cradle of complex life in the inner solar system. And presumably Venus contaminated the rest of the inner solar system with Venusian lifeforms as well, to a greater or lesser degree.
¶ For Venus’ retrograde orbit to be the result of a merger with a former retrograde moon requires that the moon’s retrograde orbit had more angular momentum than Venus’ former prograde rotation. Part of the prograde-to-retrograde planetary rotation transition (angular momentum transfer) would have occurred progressively during 4 billion years of Venus-moon tidal interactions, but the majority of the angular momentum transfer would have been cataclysmic, at impact.
¶ An object in a circular orbit has only half the potential and kinetic energy necessary to achieve escape velocity, so presumably very few massive chunks of moon or planetary surface escaped Venus’ gravitational well. Volatile loss of vaporized rock would have fogged the inner solar system, perhaps causing the Baykonurian glaciation at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary by reducing the solar incidence on Earth.
¶ Finally, part of the elevated temperature of Venus and its atmosphere (above and beyond the greenhouse effect) could be directly attributable to continued cooling from the Venusian cataclysm, and presumably the vast majority of the greenhouse gasses causing indirect greenhouse heating are attributable to the cataclysm as well, converting Venus from more hospitable to life than Earth prior to 541 Ma to the most inhospitable object in the solar system afterward.
Protoplanetary disk and 3 debris disks condense 4 planetesimal populations:
– Protoplanetary disk (> 4,567 Ma) — Brown Dwarf, Mars(?), Oort cloud comets(?), CI chondrites(?)
– Primary debris disk [inferred] (> 4,567 Ma) — old hot-classical KBOs
– Secondary debris disk (4,567 Ma) — asteroids, chondrites
– Tertiary debris disk [inferred] (715–635? Ma) — young cold-classical KBOs, Ceres(?)
– Quaternary debris ring [inferred] (541 Ma) — Venusian cataclysm, Cambrian Explosion
– Protoplanetary disk, protoplanetary reservoir, >4,567 Ma:
¶ Former Brown Dwarf is suggested to have condensed trillions of kilometer-scale planetesimals from the protoplanetary disk by streaming instability against its magnetic corotation radius, many of which may have accreted to form Mars and possibly other missing planets in possible former hybrid-accretion planet cascade around Brown Dwarf.
¶ The vast majority of the leftover protoplanetary planetesimals were presumably scattered into the Oort cloud or out of the solar system altogether during the upheaval of symmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcation, and small protoplanetary planetesimals may have vaporized in the lumious red nova phase of the binary-Sun merger at 4,567 Ma. Subsequently, a number of protoplanetary planetesimals may have been reintroduced into the inner solar system from the Oort cloud reservoir as CI chondrites.
– Primary debris disk, homogenized Brown Dwarf reservoir, >4,567 Ma:
¶ Rotational fragmentation of a core might aptly be called quadrification rather than trifurcation in a mass-balance accounting which includes vaporized, evaporated and centrifugally spun-off dust and gas during the trifurcation process.
¶ Trifurcation may be a messy process, which created a massive ‘primary debris disk’ around former binary-Sun, from 4 trifurcation generations of Brown Dwarf. This homogenized, primary-debris-disk Brown-Dwarf reservoir which lay on the 3-oxygen-isotope Brown Dwarf fractionation line, which we know as the ‘terrestrial fractionation line’ (TFL).
¶ The extreme mixing inherent in the violent act of trifurcation may largely preclude light-isotope fractionation into the evaporated primary debris disk. As the debris-disk gas and dust cooled and settled, however, reverse fractionation caused preferential condensation and chemical reaction of the heaviest isotopes, which preferentially underwent gravitational collapse by streaming instability, such that KBOs condensed from the primary debris disk inherited a heavy isotopic signature. So somewhat counterintuitively, trifurcation evaporation followed by streaming instability may imbue hot classical KBOs condensed from the primary debris disk with a heavy isotopic signature compared to the trifurcation products (7 planets and Companion). So the elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratio of Earth’s continental crust compared to its mantle may result from Earth impact by hot-classical KBOs with gneissic cores having a heavy isotopic signature compared to bulk Earth.
¶ Additionally, trifurcation of internally-differentiated objects with iron-nickel cores would vaporize and evaporate siderophile-depleted gas and dust, depleted in iron, nickel, and the platinum group elements, including iridium.
¶ The primary debris disk is suggested to have condensed a siderophile-depleted (hot-classical) KBO population with a TFL signature against Neptune’s outer resonances by streaming instability. The rhythmic pulse of binary-Sun likely may have precluded the condensation of inner solar system asteroids from the primary debris disk, and small inner solar system planetesimals may have been vaporized in the binary-Sun-merger luminous red nova at 4,567 Ma.
– Secondary debris disk, binary-Sun-merger reservoir, 4,567 Ma:
¶ The twin binary-Sun components spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma in a luminous red nova, which apparently elevated the core-merger temperatures to the point of fusing r-process radionuclides, notably 26Al and 60Fe. The solar-merger debris was also variably enriched in the helium-burning stable isotopes, 20 Ne, 16O and 12C. Calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) with canonical 26Al concentrations presumably condensed from polar jets squirting from the merging cores of the binary-stellar components. Chondrules formed over a duration of 3 million years, perhaps super-intense solar flares melted interplanetary dust motes into glassy chondrules during the 3-million-year flare-star phase of the newly-merged Sun.
¶ The stellar merger imparted little angular momentum to the nova debris, apparently confining the secondary debris disk to the inner solar system, such that low angular momentum precluded the condensation of solar-merger KBOs beyond Neptune. Asteroids presumably condensed quickly against the magnetic corotation radius inside the orbit of Mercury, while short-half-life radionuclides were still hot, which thermally differentiated (melted) the early asteroids. Undifferentiated chondrites likely condensed in situ against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances over the next 5 million years, after the short-lived radionuclides had largely decayed away.
¶ If the planet Mercury is not a 4th-generation-trifurcation residual core, then alternatively Mercury may be a hybrid-accretion planet accreted from refractory asteroids condensed against the Sun’s greatly-expanded solar-merger magnetic corotation radius.
– Tertiary debris disk, binary-Companion-merger reservoir, 715–635? Ma:
¶ The super-Jupiter components of former binary-Companion presumably spiraled in to merge at about 650 Ma, fogging the solar system with binary-Companion merger debris and causing the Marinoan glaciation on Earth. The binary-Companion merger explosion was apparently asymmetrical, giving the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. While the binary-Sun merger at 4,567 Ma was vastly more energetic than the binary-Companion merger at around 650 Ma, the tertiary debris disk inherited vastly more angular momentum than the earlier secondary debris disk, enabling the formation of a dense tertiary debris disk beyond Neptune, whereas the earlier secondary debris disk was primarily confined to the inner solar system.
¶ The proceeding Sturtian glaciation (715–680 Ma) of the Cryogenian Period, however, points to a prolonged period of solar system upheaval long before the actual cataclysmic super-Jupiter–super-Jupiter merger, causing the onset of the Cryogenian Period on Earth. This earlier Sturtian glaciation suggests a prolonged period of solar system fogging prior to the cataclysmic binary-Companion merger, presumably caused by the intermittent accretion of multiple former moons of the super-Jupiter components as the super-Jupiter components spiraled inward.
¶ A young, ‘cold classical KBO’ population presumably condensed in situ by streaming instability against the strongest outer resonances of Neptune from the tertiary debris disk, primarily against the outer 2:3 resonance. Presumably the precursory moony merger explosions did not eject sufficient material to condense cold classical KBOs on their own, but the prolonged period of intermittent moony mergers would have materially contributed to the growing tertiary debris disk reservoir beyond Neptune.
¶ The young, cold-classical KBO population should lie on the TFL like the old hot-classical KBO population, but the young population will have a siderophile signature, since the binary-Companion-merger debris includes siderophile core material from the super-Jupiter components.
¶ The tertiary debris disk also inherited the Brown Dwarf D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) ratio. A measurement of the D/H ratio in the cold classical KBO population could determine if one or both binary-Companion components were super-Jupiters below the deuterium-burning threshold or low-mass brown dwarfs above it.
¶ Ceres is devoid of large impact craters >~280 km, whereas collisional models predict 10–14 craters >400 km (Marchi et al. 2016). This absence of large craters on Ceres suggests either widespread resurfacing of the minor planet, or alternatively a young age that missed out on the late heavy bombardment, suggesting it may have condensed from the young tertiary debris disk. And the water-ice layer in Ceres mantle might be consistent with a temporary inward migration of the frost line due to sunlight shielding by a tertiary debris disk in the asteroid belt.
– Quaternary debris ring, Venusian cataclysm reservoir, 541 Ma:
¶ Venus is suggested to have formed with a pinch-off moon, similar in composition and scale to Earth’s Moon, but in a retrograde orbit. The orbit of the retrograde moon decayed over a period of 4 billion years, gradually spiraling in to ultimately merge with Venus at 541 Ma. This ‘Venusian cataclysm’ melted and resurfaced the planet, as well as presumably creating a ‘quaternary debris ring’ centered on Venus orbit, with ‘quaternary’ referring to the forth debris ring/disk of the solar system, not the ‘Quaternary’ Period of the Cenozoic Era. The .3 AU proximity of Earth to Venus may have sufficiently reduced the incidence of sunlight on Earth to cause the Baykonurian glaciation at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary.
¶ Apparently sufficient pristine material escaped from the surface to contaminate Earth with Venusian lifeforms, causing the Cambrian Explosion on Earth, although there does not appear to be a clustering of meteorite impacts around the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in the Earth Impact Database.
¶ The tertiary debris ring would have had a siderophile signature and lay on the TFL, and indeed, trace iridium is detected in Precambrian-Cambrian boundary samples (Li-Yun et al, 1991).
Solar system summary and evolution:
¶ A massive protoplanetary accretion disk around a diminutive brown-dwarf-sized core underwent symmetrical FFF, condensing a twin-binary pair of disk-instability objects. The resulting system, comprised of a massive twin binary pair of prestellar objects orbiting a diminutive Brown Dwarf, was dynamically unstable, resulting in a period of orbital interplay which evaporated the central core into a circumbinary orbit around the twin binary pair which concomitantly spiraled in to became binary-Sun. Orbital interplay caused Brown Dwarf to spin up and undergo 4 generations of trifurcation, forming a binary-Companion, along with 6 or 7 trifurcated planets. Perturbations from former binary-Companion caused the twin-binary solar components to spiral in and merge at 4,567 Ma in a luminous red nova which created the secondary debris disk from which asteroids and chondrites condensed by streaming instability.
Symmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcation:
¶ Our solar system at one time is suggested to have once consisted of 5 twin binary pairs (binary-Sun, binary-Companion, Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune, and Venus-Earth), formed by symmetrical FFF, followed by four generations of trifurcation;
1) Symmetrical FFF — binary-Sun + Brown Dwarf (original core)
2) First-generation trifurcation — binary-Companion + SUPER-Jupiter (residual core)
3) Second-generation trifurcation — Jupiter-Saturn + SUPER-Neptune (residual core)
4) Third-generation trifurcation — Uranus-Neptune + SUPER-Earth (residual core)
5) Fourth-generation trifurcation — Venus-Earth + Mercury(?) (residual core)
¶ The super-Jupiter-mass twin-binary components of binary-Companion did not separate like the binary components of the three younger trifurcation generations, resulting in a quaternary system, composed of binary-Sun and binary-Companion in a wide binary orbit around the solar system barycenter, with a Sun-Companion separation of hundreds of AU.
¶ Perturbations from the rest of the solar system caused binary-Companion components to spiral in over time, and as the super-Jupiter components spiraled in, the increased binding energy of the binary-Companion system went into increasing the Sun-Companion the eccentricity over time. This progressively-increasing Sun-Companion eccentricity caused tidal perturbation to progress outward through the Kuiper belt over time, causing the late heavy bombardment of the inner solar system by KBO impacts.
¶ Ultimately, binary-Companion’s binary components merged at around 650 Ma, giving the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. And the binary-Companion-merger tertiary debris disk condensed a young population of cold-classical KBOs against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance.
¶ If Mercury is the residual core of the fourth-generation trifurcation then it is a residual core sibling of Venus and Earth. Alternatively, Mercury could be a hybrid-accretion planet formed by the accretion of asteroids condensed against the Sun’s magnetic corotation radius by streaming instability from the secondary debris disk following the binary-Sun spiral-in merger at 4,567 Ma. Both alternatives predict a large iron-nickel core, but a trifurcation origin would place Mercury on the TFL, while a hybrid accretion origin would indicate stellar-merger nucleosynthesis, with oxygen-16 enrichment that would not lie on the TFL. But even a trifurcation origin would be heavily contaminated by secondary debris disk asteroids.
¶ Venus is suggested to be the twin of Earth from the fourth-generation SUPER-Earth trifurcation, and similar to Earth, Venus may have also had a former (oversized) pinch-off moon. But Venus’ former moon was apparently injected into a doomed retrograde orbit that decayed and spiraled in to merge with the planet at 541 Ma in the Venusian cataclysm.
¶ Low crater counts indicate that Venus has been entirely resurfaced, either in the last 300-500 Mya (Price & Suppe 1994), or in the last or 300-1000 Myr (McKinnon et al. 1997). The numerous massive pancake-shaped coronae on Venus may be the result of a messy digestion of the moon that still occasionally spills out in these characteristic surface eruptions. And the oppressive sulfurous atmosphere is presumably attributable to cataclysm outgassing. “Sulphur dioxide is a million times more abundant in the atmosphere of Venus than that of Earth, possibly as a result of volcanism on Venus within the past billion years.” (Marcq et al 2013)
¶ The sudden appearance of all modern lifeform phyla on Earth in the Cambrian Explosion supports merger-explosion contamination by definition, making Venus the cradle of complex life in the inner solar system which it relayed to Earth in its 100% extinction event cataclysm.
¶ Venus’ present retrograde orbit suggests that the former moon’s retrograde orbit had slightly more angular momentum than Venus’ former prograde rotation.
¶ Earth is suggested to be the twin of Venus from the fourth-generation SUPER-Earth trifurcation. Earth is presumed to have acquired its pinch-off Moon during trifurcation, as the trailing tail of the bar-mode arm which formed Earth gravitationally pinched off into a separate Roche sphere, but remained gravitationally bound to the planet.
¶ The Great Unconformity is suggested to have been caused by massive erosion by super tsunamis, unparalleled in the history of the planet. These super tsunamis are suggested to have been caused by the loss of our former newly-merged Companion, around 650 Ma. The loss of Companion eliminated the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former solar system barycenter, causing all objects in heliocentric orbits to fall into slightly lower, shorter-period orbits, which presumably resulted in super tsunamis on Earth. Additionally, the glaciations of the Cryogenian Period presumably occurred due to fogging of the solar system by impending and ultimate merger of the super-Jupiter components of former binary-Companion. The earlier, longer Sturtian glaciation is presumed to have been caused by moony mergers with the super-Jupiter components, as the twin-binary components spiraled inward, and the Marinoan glaciation was presumably caused by the merger of the twin-binary components themselves.
¶ Earth was presumably contaminated by Venusian lifeforms at 541 Ma in the Cambrian Explosion when Venus’ former retrograde pinch-off moon spiraled in and merged with the planet in the Venusian cataclysm melting the entire crust of Venus.
¶ The continental tectonic plates on Earth are suggested to be cored by authigenic gneissic sediments, precipitated, lithified and metamorphosed in the cores of hot classical KBOs, and perturbed into the inner solar system from the Kuiper belt by a former Sun-Companion tidal mechanism, largely during the late heavy bombardment, but continuing until the loss of former Companion around 650 Ma. (See section, AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs))
Mars, Oort cloud comets and CI chondrites:
¶ Mars is suggested to be a hybrid-accretion planet from the protoplanetary disk which may have formed around former Brown Dwarf from planetesimals condensed by streaming instability against the magnetic corotation radius of former Brown Dwarf. Leftover planetesimals were presumably scattered into the Oort cloud during the upheaval of symmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcation of former Brown Dwarf. CI chondrites, which do not contain binary-solar-merger chondrules and lie near the 3-oxygen-isotope Martian fractionation line, may sample the protoplanetary reservoir.
¶ Jupiter is suggested to be a twin of Saturn from the second-generation SUPER-Jupiter trifurcation.
¶ Like Venus and Neptune, perhaps Jupiter once possessed a former pinch-off moon in a doomed retrograde orbit that spiraled in to merge with the gas giant at around 4,562 Ma. The existence of a former oversized pinch-off moon, perhaps as large as Mars, may have truncated the cascade of hybrid accretion moons to the 4 Galilean moons.
¶ CI chondrites show a thermal event in the asteroid belt that melted water ice which deposited dolomites in this age range, with a 53Mn–53Cr age of dolomites dated at 4,563.8–4,562.5) (Fujiya et al. 2013). Finally,
¶ The D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) ratio of Saturn is lower than that of Jupiter by a factor of 0.71 + 0.22% – 0.15, contrary to standard-model predictions of a higher ratio (Pierel et al. 2017). But if plasma overflowed Jupiter’s Roche sphere in the Jupiter-moony merger, then hydrogen fractionation of hydrogen would be an expected outcome, with the enormous 2 to 1 mass difference between deuterium and protium creating a dramatic degree of fractionation.
¶ Perhaps the most compelling evidence for a dramatic inner solar system event pointing to a Jupiter-moony merger around 4,562 Ma are enstatite chondrites, which are the only chondrites to lie on the TFL, suggesting an unusual Brown Dwarf reservoir origin, with a 29I–129Xe age for enstatite chondrites (4,562.3 +/- 0.4) (Gilmour et al. 2009).
¶ Saturn, is suggested to be a twin of Jupiter from the second-generation SUPER-Jupiter trifurcation. Titan appears to be Saturn’s prograde pinch-off moon, with a neat cascade of smaller planemo hybrid-accretion moons.
¶ Uranus is suggested to be a twin of Neptune from the third-generation SUPER-Neptune trifurcation.
¶ Uranus either did not acquire a pinch-off moon or subsequently lost it, but it exhibits a handsome cascade of hybrid accretion moons which apparently formed after Uranus sideways tilt, as the moons orbit a miniscule tilt to Uranus’ rotational axis. While the sideways tilt is unexplained, it is hardly surprising in a solar system suggested to have undergone 4 generations of trifurcation.
¶ Neptune is suggested to be a twin of Uranus from the third-generation SUPER-Neptune trifurcation.
¶ Triton is Neptune’s suggested pinch-off moon, which apparently acquired a retrograde orbit during trifurcation. Neptune’s smaller moons do not represent a neat cascade of hybrid-accretion moons.
Asteroids and chondrites:
¶ Asteroids and chondrites are suggested to have condensed from the secondary debris disk, which was created in the binary spiral-in merger of former binary-Sun’s stellar components at 4,567 Ma. The binary-solar-merger luminous red nova may have briefly engulfed the solar system out to the Kuiper belt, but the low specific angular momentum content of the luminous red nova presumably precluded the formation of a debris disk beyond Neptune.
¶ Early-forming asteroids with hot radionuclides may have primarily condensed against the Sun’s greatly expanded magnetic corotation radius by streaming instability, and Mercury may or may not be a hybrid accretion planet formed in situ from the asteroid condensates.
¶ Chondrites formed over the next 5 million years, likely condensing in situ by streaming instability against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances. As the Sun’s rotation rate and magnetic field strength died down, likely at an exponential rate over time, the magnetic corotation radius of the Sun presumably contracted to the point of no longer providing a hospitable formation location for streaming instability, so Jupiter’s inner resonances became the most favorable location for streaming instabilities.
Hot classical KBOs:
¶ Hot classical KBOs in are suggested to have condensed from the primary debris disk, shortly prior to 4,567 Ma, which was largely composed of trifurcation debris from the Brown Dwarf reservoir, which lies on the TFL. Hot-classical KBOs condensed from the primary debris disk should lie on the TFL, with the siderophile-depleted composition, with siderophile elements retained by the trifurcation components, namely the twin-binary pair (with or without pinch-off moons) and their tertiary residual core.
¶ This early hot classical KBO population was presumably perturbed into high-inclination, high-eccentricity ‘hot’ classical KBOs by Sun-Companion tidal effects. The late heavy bombardment is suggested to have been caused by the Sun-Companion ‘tidal inflection point’ moving through the cubewano population from about 4.1–3.8 Ga, with the tidal inflection point spiraling out from the Sun through the Kuiper belt, driven outward by the corresponding spiral in of the binary-Companion components over time.
¶ Orbital perturbation by the Sun-Companion tides are suggested to have caused internal ‘aqueous differentiation’ of the hot classical population as the tidal inflection point overtook their semimajor axes. Aqueous differentiation of KBOs, caused by melting of water ice is suggested to have precipitated authigenic gneissic sediments, which subsequently lithified and metamorphosed in (migmatite) gneiss, crowned by mantling sediments, typically comprised of quartzite, marble and schist. So progressive Sun-Companion perturbation of the KBO population both initiated internal aqueous differentiation as well as orbitally perturbing many differentiated KBOs into the inner solar system.
Cold classical KBOs:
¶ Cold classical KBOs are suggested to have condensed in situ from the young tertiary debris disk formed from spiral-in merger debris of former binary-Companion around 650 Ma. The low-inclination, low-eccentricity ‘cold’ orbits are presumably the result of in situ condensation without subsequent Sun-Companion perturbation.
¶ Cold classical KBOs are often found in binary systems composed of similar-size and similar-color (twin) binary pairs, unlike hot classical KBOs which are rarely found in binary pairs. Hot classical KBOs were presumably also formed in binary pairs before being disrupted by Sun-Companion perturbation. Additionally, cold classical KBOs tend to be red in coloration, while hot classical KBOs are more heterogeneous, tending toward bluish hues.
¶ Presumably few if any cold classical KBOs have been perturbed into the inner solar system, likely with none having impacted Earth.
¶ The Pluto system presumably formed in situ by streaming instability against Neptune’s strongest outer 2:3 resonance. The geologically active surface of Pluto, revealed in 2015 by the New Horizons spacecraft, might point to its membership in the young KBO population, condensed from the 650 Ma tertiary debris disk.
¶ The binary Pluto system appears to have formed by symmetrical FFF, followed by 2 generations of trifurcation of a very-diminutive core, resulting in three twin-binary pairs, namely, Pluto-Charon, Nix-Hydra, and Styx-Kergeros. This formation sequence would make the Pluto system very similar to the formation sequence of our solar system as a whole, despite its heliocentric satellite status. Pluto’s smaller moons are very much smaller than Pluto and Charon (circa 31,600 times less massive than Charon), which is somewhat unsettling. The two alternatives, of hybrid accretion and capture are no more comforting. Binary star systems do not appear to contain super-Earth exoplanets, and the capture of two twin-binary pairs of moons Nix–Hydra (50x35x33–65x45x25 km), and Styx–Kerberos (16x9x8–19x10x9 km) seems almost astronomically unlikely.
¶ Detached objects, also known as extended scattered disc objects (E-SDO), distant detached objects (DDO) or scattered-extended objects are a class of minor planets belonging to trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), with perihelia sufficiently distant from Neptune to be considered detached from planetary influence.
¶ The relative aphelia alignment of detached objects, such as Sedna and 2012 VP-113, is suggested here to be a fossil alignment of KBO aphelia with the former Sun-Companion axis, where shorter period KBOs have randomized their aphelia orientations since the loss of binary-Companion around 650 Ma.
Flip-flop perturbation of KBOs:
¶ ‘Flip-flop perturbation’ is a suggested progressive orbital perturbation mechanism, caused by the secular evolution of the Sun–binary-Companion system. The secular evolution was caused by the progressive energy transfer from the close-binary super-Jupiter-mass components of binary-Companion to the wide-binary components of the Sun-Companion system, in which the binary-Companion components progressively spiraled in, causing the wide-binary Sun-Companion system to become progressively eccentric over time. This progressive eccentricity of the Sun-Companion system caused a progressive tidal dynamic in the Kuiper belt, which can be illustrated by lunar tides on Earth.
¶ Earth has two lunar high tides, a near-side high tide, nearest the Moon, and a far-side high tide, farthest from the Moon, with low tide half way between the two high tides. As the Earth rotates, ocean water flip-flops from high tide to low tide to high tide and etc. The orbital analogy is suggested to have affected heliocentric orbits in the Kuiper belt, where KBOs experiencing near-side high tide had their aphelia pointed toward binary-Companion, while KBOs experiencing far-side high tide had their aphelia centrifugally slung 180° away from from binary-Companion. This orbital aphelia flip-flop mechanism is designated, ‘flip-flop perturbation’.
¶ The low-tide transition between the aphelia flip-flop states is designated, ‘tidal inflection point’ (TIP), and for convenience TIP is defined with respect to the semimajor axes of KBOs. The flip-flop dynamic was not sudden, but instead took the form of aphelia precession, toward or 180° away from from binary-Companion as the tidal inflection point between Sun and Companion seesawed through the Kuiper belt with the Sun-Companion eccentricity. Additionally, the stroke of the TIP seesaw progressively increased its reach from the Sun, over time, with the progressively increasing Sun-Companion eccentricity.
¶ As eccentricity progressively increased the reach of TIP into the Kuiper belt over time, progressively more distant KBOs were subjected to aphelia precession (flip-flop perturbation) as TIP caught up with their semimajor axes for the first time.
¶ If the Sun were 20 times more massive than Companion, then the solar system barycenter (SSB) would be 20 times closer to the Sun than to Companion. Imagine at t = 0 with the SSB at 30 AU when the Sun-Companion are at greatest separation (at Sun-Companion apoapsis).
¶ Saturn in its orbit around the Sun varies its distance from Companion by twice its semimajor axis, by about 19 AU, which is a small percentage of the 20 x 30 = 600 AU closest approach of Companion; however, 19 AU is a huge percentage difference of the 30 AU distance to the SSB, at 30 AU. At all points in Saturn’s orbit the centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB is 180° away from from binary-Companion, which subtracts from the gravitational force on Saturn toward binary-Companion, but since the SSB is much-much closer than binary-Companion, the large variation in centrifugal force across Saturn’s orbit governs major axis alignment, causing Saturn’s aphelion to be centrifugally slung 180° away from from binary-Companion.
¶ Next consider Neptune, with a semimajor axis of 30, which passes directly through the SSB when Neptune is closest to binary-Companion in its orbit. When Neptune passes though the SSB it instantaneously experiences zero centrifugal force away from Companion while experiencing maximal gravitational attraction toward Companion.
¶ Now consider a KBO with a semimajor axis of, say, 40 AU from the Sun. For the portion of the KBO orbit around the Sun which is beyond the SSB at 30 AU, a portion of the centrifugal force vector of the Sun around the SSB adds to the gravitational force vector that points toward binary-Companion, while on the far side of its orbit around the Sun the centrifugal force mostly subtracts from the gravitational force vector. The more distant the KBO, the less the relative effect of centrifugal force is directed away from binary-Companion, to the point that KBOs are suggested to have formed in situ with their aphelia pointed toward binary-Companion.
¶ While the TIP is associated with the SSB, they are not coincident, with the TIP presumably residing further from the Sun than the SSB. Flip-flop perturbation occurs when the eccentrically-increasing TIP (at Sun-Companion apoapsis) overtakes the semimajor axis of a KBO for the first time, causing the KBO’s orbital aphelion to precess from pointing toward binary-Companion to pointing 180° away from it.
Flip-flop perturbation of KBOs is suggested to have had at least two effects on KBOs:
1) Flip-flop perturbation is suggested to have reduced binary KBOs to solitary KBOs, either by separating the binary components, or more likely by causing their binary components to spiral in and merge to form contact binaries. Spiral-in mergers of large binary KBOs would have melted water ice, initiating ‘aqueous differentiation’, which is suggested to have precipitated authigenic gneissic sediments in their cores, which lithified and metamorphosed into gneiss. Earth impacts by aqueously-differentiated KBOs are suggested to be the origin of the basement rock of the continental tectonic plates on Earth.
2) Secondly, Flip-flop perturbation is suggested to have perturbed KBOs into highly-inclined, highly-eccentric orbits, many of which were perturbed out of the Kuiper belt, many into the inner solar system, with the heaviest influx during the period of the late heavy bombardment from about 4.1 to about 3.8 Ga, as the TIP moved through the cubewano population.
Evidence for the first pulse of a bimodal LHB:
¶ Flip-flop perturbation predicts a bimodal late heavy bombardment, with a narrow early pulse, as the TIP encounters Plutinos in a 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune at 39.4 AU, followed by a broader main pulse, as the TIP encounters classical KBOs (cubewanos), which lie between the 2:3 resonance and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune.
¶ Lunar rock in the range of 4.04–4.26 Ga, from Apollo 16 and 17, separates the formational 4.5 Ga highland crust from the 4.1–3.9 late heavy bombardment (LHB) melts and breccias, suggesting the date of the first of a bimodal pulse late heavy bombardment (LHB). (Garrick-Bethell et al. 2008)
¶ Whole-rock ages ~4.2 Ga from Apollo 16 and 17, and a 4.23–4.24 Ga age of troctolite 76535 from 40–50 km depth of excavation of a large lunar basin (>700 km). The same 4.23 Ga age was found in far-side meteorites, Hoar 489 and Amatory 86032. Samples from North Ray crater (63503) have been reset to 4.2 Ga. Fourteen studies recorded ages from 4.04–4.26 Ga (Table 1). (Norman and Neomycin 2014)
¶ In addition to lunar evidence, a 4.2 Ga impact has affected an LL chondrite parent body. (Trieloff et al., 1989, 1994; Dixon et al., 2004)
¶ The proceeding evidence suggests an a sharply-defined early pulse of a bimodal LHB occurring around 4.22 Ga, when the tidal inflection point is suggested to have crossed the 2:3 resonance with Neptune, where the resonant Plutino population orbit.
¶ The relative aphelia alignment of detached objects today, such as Sedna and 2012 VP-113, is suggested to be a fossil alignment of KBO aphelia with the former Sun-Companion axis, where shorter period KBOs have randomized their aphelia orientations since the loss of Companion around 650 Ma.
Sun-Companion eccentricity increases at an exponential rate for 4 billion years:
(See Figure 3)
The actual mass of our former binary Companion is unknown and and relatively insignificant for calculating the suggested exponential rate of progression of the tidal inflection point (TIP) on KBOs through the Kuiper belt. In this subsection, the Alpha Centauri star system is arbitrarily chosen for scaling purposes, with our Sun corresponding to the combined binary mass of Alpha Centauri AB, and our former binary-Companion corresponding to the mass of Proxima Centauri. Since Alpha Centauri AB is almost exactly two solar masses, a former binary Companion half the mass of Proxima Centauri completes the symmetry, suggesting a .0615 solar mass (1/16.26 solar mass) for former binary-Companion.
Note: The following calculations are for the solar system barycenter (SSB) rather than for the TIP, where the tidal inflection point is related to the SSB, but not coincident with it. A working definition of the the TIP is is the distance from the Sun in AU, at a given point in time before 650 Ma, which would cause a KBO aphelia to begin to precess by 180°, where the TIP is defined with respect to KBO semimajor axes. The tidal inflection point is a more complex calculation than the SSB, which is beyond the scope of this conceptual approach, so the simpler SSB is calculated as an rough approximation.
Assuming exponential wide-binary orbit inflation r = 10at+b,
linearized as, log(r) = at + b
. ‘r’ is the log(AU) wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation
. ‘t’ is time in Ma (millions of years ago)
. ‘a’ is the slope, corresponding to the exponential rate
. ‘b’ is the y-intercept, corresponding to the present (0.0 Ma)
Solve for ‘a’ and ‘b’:
1) SSB at 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU):
1.5955 + 1.2370 = 4220m + b
2) SSB at the classical Kuiper belt spike (43 AU):
1.6335 + 1.2370 = 3900m + b
. 1.5955 = log(39.4 AU), log of Plutino orbit
. 1.6335 = log(43 AU)
. 1.2370 = log(1 + 16.26) This scales the Sun-SSB distance to the Sun-Companion distance. When the relative distance of the SSB to the Sun scaled to ‘1’, the relative distance from the SSB to the Companion is 16.26, so the total relative distance from the Sun to the Companion is (1 + 16.26) = 17.26. Adding log(17.26) = 1.2370 is the same as multiplying the distance in AU by 17.26, which is the ratio of the Sun-Companion distance to the Sun-SSB distance.
Solving for ‘a’ and ‘b’, yields:
. r = -t/8421 + 3.334
. a = -1/8421
. b = 3.334
t = 4,567 Ma, r = 618 AU, SSB = 35.8 AU
t = 4,220 Ma, r = 679 AU, SSB = 39.4 AU (Plutinos, 1st bimodal LHB spike)
t = 3,900 Ma, r = 742 AU, SSB = 43 AU (Cubewanos, 2nd bimodal LHB spike)
So the bimodal timing of the LHB may be amenable to calculation and thus predicting a falsifiable double pulse, whereas Grand Tack can not predict the onset of the LHB and does not predict a double pulse.
1) The Sun-Companion tidal inflection point crosses Plutinos in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU) at 4.22 Ga, causing the first pulse of a bimodal LHB
2) The tidal inflection point reaches the peak concentration of the main belt cubewanos at 43 AU at 3.9 Ga.
Binary-Companion is presumed to have sculpted the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud, which is thought to begin between 2,000–5,000 AU from the Sun, which is in line with a .0615 solar mass binary-Companion (1/2 the mass of Proxima Centauri) reaching apoapsis distance of 1859 AU from the Sun by 635 Ma, having shepherded the comets outward for 4 billion years by progressive orbit clearing.
Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Plutinos formed by gravitational/streaming instability:
“We have searched 101 Classical trans-Neptunian objects for companions with the Hubble Space Telescope. Of these, at least 21 are binary. The heliocentric inclinations of the objects we observed range from 0.6-34°. We find a very strong anticorrelation of binaries with inclination. Of the 58 targets that have inclinations of less than 5.5°, 17 are binary, a binary fraction of 29+7-6 %. All 17 are similar-brightness systems. On the contrary, only 4 of the 42 objects with inclinations greater than 5.5° have satellites and only 1 of these is a similar-brightness binary. This striking dichotomy appears to agree with other indications that the low eccentricity, non-resonant Classical trans-Neptunian objects include two overlapping populations with significantly different physical properties and dynamical histories.”
(Noll et al. 2008)
“The 100 km class binary KBOs identified so far are widely separated and their components are similar in size. These properties defy standard ideas about processes of binary formation involving collisional and rotational disruption, debris re-accretion, and tidal evolution of satellite orbits
(Stevenson et al. 1986).”
“The observed color distribution of binary KBOs can be easily understood if KBOs formed by GI [gravitational instability].” “We envision a situation in which the excess of angular momentum in a gravitationally collapsing swarm prevents formation of a solitary object. Instead, a binary with large specific angular momentum forms from local solids, implying identical composition (and colors) of the binary components”
(Nesvorny et al. 2010)
The predictive and explanatory power of catastrophic primary-mechanism ideology:
– Bimodal late heavy bombardment (LHB):
+++ Our former binary-Companion perturbed Plutinos in a sharp early bimodal pulse at 4.22 Ga, followed by perturbation of cubewanos from 4.1–3.8 Ga in the broader main bimodal pulse.
– – – Grand Tack does not predict a bimodal LHB, yet alone offer an explanation for a narrow early pulse, followed by a broader main pulse.
– Bimodal distribution of hot and cold Jupiters:
+++ Asymmetrical FFF explains the distinct gap between the bimodal distribution of gas-giant exoplanets into hot Jupiters in low ‘hot’ orbits and cold Jupiters in higher ‘cold’ orbits.
– – – The standard model suggests that planetary migration causes some gas-giant planets formed in cold ‘Goldilocks’ orbits to migrate inward and become hot Jupiters, but planetary migration can not explain the distinct gap between the two populations.
– Bimodal distribution of hot and cold classical KBOs:
+++ The bimodal populations are explained by formation by streaming instability from two separate debris disks, with perturbation of the old hot classical population by former binary-Companion.
– – – The Grand Tack hypothesis provides no distinct mechanism for the disparate populations.
– Twin binary pairs of solar system planets:
+++ Asymmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcation explains the apparent 3 twin-binary pairs of planets in our solar system.
– – – Hierarchical (pebble) accretion does not predict and can not explain the apparent 3 twin-binary pairs of planets in our solar system.
– Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) of the early solar system:
+++ The suggested binary spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma eliminates three variables in the standard model of early solar system SLRs; timing, proximity, and dilution factor of an ad hoc nucleosynthesis event close to solar formation. The bullseye symmetry of a defining event (versus the offset asymmetry of a fortuitous event) also eliminates the improbable outcome of homogenous mixing (canonical 26Al/27Al ratio) of external input from a high-energy event into a delicate Jeans mass.
– – – A nearby supernova which both contributed radionuclides and precipitated the gravitational collapse of our Jeans mass purports to eliminate the timing and proximity variables.
– Venusian cataclysm and retrograde rotation, and the Cambrian Explosion:
+++ The spiral-in merger of a former Venusian moon at 541 Ma is suggested to have kicked the planet into a retrograde rotation and melted the crust, resurfacing the planet. The Venusian cataclysm so close to Earth had a spillover effect, apparently contaminating Earth with Venusian phyla, causing the Cambrian Explosion on Earth. The Venusian cataclysm is also suggested to have fogged the inner solar system, causing the Baykonurian glaciation at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary. So the Venusian cataclysm purportedly unifies Venusian retrograde rotation, ‘recent’ resurfacing of Venus, Venus’ thick sulfurous atmosphere, the Cambrian Explosion and the Baykonurian glaciation on Earth.
– – – In the standard model, these various phenomena require disparate (ad hoc) causes, and can not successfully explain the explosive appearance of all major phyla in the Early Cambrian.
– Aphelia alignment of detached objects:
+++ The relative aphelia alignment of detached objects, such as Sedna and 2012 VP-113, is suggested to be a fossil alignment of KBO aphelia with the former Sun-Companion axis, where shorter period KBOs have randomized their aphelia orientations since the loss of the Companion at 650 Ma.
– – – The most favored theory suggests an unobserved Planet 9 to explain the relative alignment.
– Glaciations of the Cryogenian Period and the Great Unconformity:
+++ The clockwork symmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcations explains and unifies these disparate phenomena as the binary spiral-in merger of former binary-Companion, causing the
Marinoan glaciation, proceeded by accretionary mergers of the binary-Companion moons with the super-Jupiter components prior to their spiral in merger around 650 Ma. Then the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former Sun-Companion barycenter caused all objects in heliocentric orbits to fall into lower shorter-period orbits, which is suggested to have caused super tsunamis on Earth, causing the erosion of the Great Unconformity.
– – – Otherwise there’s no consensus on Snowball Earth or the Great Unconformity
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