This alternative conceptual ideology suggests three novel mechanisms for the formation of gravitationally-bound objects:
– Flip-flop fragmentation (FFF)
– Hybrid accretion
– Flip-flop fragmentation (FFF)—a suggested mechanism for forming gaseous objects, ranging in size from gas-giant planets to brown dwarfs and companion stars:
¶ FFF suggests that excess angular momentum in a collapsing dark core may create an outsized accretion disk that is much more massive than its diminutive prestellar/protostellar core, such that the massive accretion disk inertially dominates the system. Inertial dominance is suggested here to promote disk instability, ‘condensing’ either a solitary disk-instability (d-i) object or a twin-binary pair of d-i objects. Disk instability presumably occurs by way of (spiral) density waves, either by way of an asymmetrical (m = 1 mode) density wave, condensing a solitary d-i object, or a symmetrical (m = 2 mode) density wave, condensing a twin-binary pair of d-i objects. Inherent in FFF is an inertial ‘flip-flop’, where the diminutive prestellar/protostellar core is injected into a planetary satellite orbit around the much-more massive d-i object, or twin-binary pair of d-i objects, catastrophically projecting mass inward. FFF suggests that gas-giant planets are former stellar cores that predate their stellar host.
¶ Asymmetrical FFF—Asymmetrical FFF condenses a solitary d-i object that automatically inertially displaces the diminutive former stellar core into planetary satellite orbit.
¶ Symmetrical FFF—Symmetrical FFF condenses a twin-binary pair of d-i objects around a diminutive stellar core, creating a dynamically unstable system, but the stellar core is not automatically inertially displaced into a circumbinary orbit. Instead the diminutive core is progressively evaporated into a stable, hierarchical circumbinary orbit by way of orbital interplay with the more-massive d-i objects. Symmetrical FFF is suggested to also form triple star systems such as Alpha Centauri, which is composed of a small companion star (Proxima Centauri) in a circumbinary orbit around the much-more-massive twin-binary pair (Alpha Centauri A&B).
– Trifurcation—a mechanism for forming twin-binary pairs, such as Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune, & Venus-Earth:
¶ Trifurcation is suggested to be a possible secondary effect of symmetrical FFF. During the orbital interplay phase of symmetrical FFF, orbital close encounters between a diminutive stellar core and its much-more-massive twin-binary d-i objects result in orbital energy and angular momentum transfer from the more massive d-i objects to the less-massive stellar core by the principle of equipartition of kinetic energy.
¶ Equipartition is also suggested to cause a rotational energy and angular momentum transfer, causing the diminutive stellar core to progressively increase its rate of rotation, causing it to ‘spin up’ and distort into an oblate sphere. Continued spin up may distort the oblate core into a bar-mode instability, which may ultimately fail by fragmenting into three components (trifurcation). In trifurcation, the twin-binary bar-mode arms gravitationally pinch off into gravitationally-bound Roche spheres in orbit around the diminutive ‘residual core’ of material remaining at the center of rotation.
¶ This newly trifurcated system, composed of a twin-binary pair in orbit around its ‘residual core’, is a diminutive version of the original symmetrical FFF system, and like the original system, the newly-trifurcated system is also dynamically unstable. First-generation trifurcation promotes second-generation trifurcation, and etc., potentially forming multiple-generations of twin-binary pairs of objects in diminishing sizes, like Russian nesting dolls. Trifurcation is the suggested origin of the four sets of twin-binary pairs in our solar system, namely, former ‘binary-Companion’, Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune, and Venus-Earth, potentially with Mercury as the residual core of the 4th generation trifurcation.
¶ While the Alpha Centauri system is suggested to have formed by symmetrical FFF, Proxima Centauri did not succumb to trifurcation.
– Hybrid accretion—a mechanism for forming super-Earths and giant-planet moons:
¶ Hybrid accretion is a suggested planet formation mechanism for forming planets by a hybrid mechanism (Thayne Curie 2005), combining planetesimal formation by streaming instability from an accretion disk, followed by the core accretion of these planetesimals into objects capable of both clearing their orbits and creating a gap in the accretion disk.
¶ Myriads of planetesimals condense by streaming instability at the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk. When core accretion reaches the nominal mass of a super-Earth around a dwarf star, the hybrid-accretion planet is able to clear its orbit and create a gap in the accretion disk, whereupon a second generation of planetesimals may condense by streaming instability against its outer resonances to form a second-generation hybrid-accretion planet. In this manor a cascade of hybrid-accretion super-Earths may form from the inside out. Cascades of hybrid-accretion moons may also form by this mechanism around gas-giant planets.
A brief history of the solar system:
1) Symmetrical FFF―binary-Sun (twin d-i objects) + Brown Dwarf* (stellar core)
2) 1st-gen. trifurcation―binary-Companion + SUPER-Jupiter* (residual core)
3) 2nd-gen. trifurcation―Jupiter-Saturn + SUPER-Neptune* (residual core)
4) 3rd-gen. trifurcation―Uranus-Neptune + SUPER-Earth* (residual core)
5) 4th-gen. trifurcation―Venus-Earth + Mercury(?) (residual core)
¶ A diminutive Brown Dwarf system with a much-more-massive accretion disk underwent symmetrical FFF, condensing a twin-binary pair of d-i objects > 4,567 Ma. Brown Dwarf underwent four generations of trifurcation as a secondary effect of symmetrical FFF. The resulting high-angular-momentum siderophile-depleted ‘trifurcation debris disk’ condensed hot classical Kuiper belt objects against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance.
¶ The twin-binary d-i objects remained gravitationally bound to become our former binary-Sun, whose binary components spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma in a luminous red nova that left behind a ‘solar-merger debris disk’. The solar-merger debris disk, with stellar-merger short-lived radionuclides, condensed asteroids by streaming instability against the Sun’s magnetic corotation radius, and slightly later condensed chondrites by streaming instability against Jupiter’s inner resonances.
¶ Similar to former binary-Sun, the super-Jupiter-mass components of former binary-Companion spiraled in and merged almost 4 billion years later, at about 650 Ma, in an an asymmetrical merger explosion that gave the newly-formed Companion escape velocity from the Sun. The high-angular-momentum Companion-merger debris disk (which was not siderophile depleted) condensed cold classical Kuiper belt objects in situ against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance.
¶ Mars is unaccounted for in this tally, pointing to its possible formation by hybrid accretion around former Brown Dwarf, prior to symmetrical FFF.
* Note, unorthodox capitalization indicates unorthodox definitions. ‘SUPER-Jupiter’, ‘SUPER-Neptune’ and ‘SUPER-Earth’ are the names for the former residual cores formed in the first three trifurcation generations. And ‘Brown Dwarf’ is the name of the original stellar core of the solar system.
Star formation stages:
1) Starless core: May be a transient phase or may progress to gravitational instability infall
2) Prestellar core: A gravitating prestellar core ends with the formation of the second hydrostatic core when hydrogen gas endothermically dissociates into atomic hydrogen at around 2000 K.
3) Protostar (Class 0, I, II, III): Begins with the formation of the second hydrostatic core.
4) Pre-main-sequence star: A T Tauri, FU Orionis, or larger (unnamed) pre-main-sequence star powered by gravitational contraction
5) Main-sequence star: Powered by hydrogen fusion
¶ “Starless cores are possibly transient concentrations of molecular gas and dust without embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), typically observed in tracers such as C18O (e.g. Onishi et al. 1998), NH3 (e.g. Jijina, Myers, & Adams 1999), or dust extinction (e.g. Alves et al. 2007), and which do not show evidence of infall. Prestellar cores are also starless (M⋆ = 0) but represent a somewhat denser and more centrally-concentrated population of cores which are self-gravitating, hence unlikely to be transient.” (André et al. 2008)
¶ In Jeans instability, the cloud collapses at an approximately free-fall rate nearly isothermally at about 10 K until the center become optically thick at ~10-13 g/cm3 after 105 yr (Larson 1969), at which point when the temperature begins to rise, forming a ‘first core’ or first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Supersonically infalling gas in the envelope is decelerated and thermalized at the surface of the first core (Masunaga et al. 1998).
¶ When the temperature reaches about 2000 K, the hydrogen begins to dissociate endothermically, forming a ‘second core’, the birth of a protostar. The protostar grows in mass by accreting the infalling material from the circumstellar envelope, while the protostar keeps its radius at ~4 R☉ during the main accretion phase. (Masunaga et al. 1998)
¶ “Enoch et al. (2009a) discovered a massive circumstellar disk of ∼1 M☉ comparable to a central protostar around a Class 0 object, indicating that (1) the disk already exists in the main accretion phase and (2) the disk mass is significantly larger than the theoretical
prediction.” (Machida et al. 2011)
¶ “The size of the first core was found to vary somewhat in the different simulations (more unstable clouds form smaller first cores) while the size, mass, and temperature of the second cores are independent of initial cloud mass, size, and temperature.
Conclusions. Our simulations support the idea of a standard (universal) initial second core size of ~ 3 × 10−3 AU and mass ~ 1.4 ×10−3 M☉.”
(Vaytet et al. 2013)
¶ “Class 0 objects are the youngest accreting protostars observed right after point mass formation, when most of the mass of the system is still in the surrounding dense core/envelope (Andre et al. 2000).”
(Chen et al. 2012)
Protoplanetary disks have their highest masses at early times:
¶ “We find that the compact (< 100) dust emission is lower for Class I sources (median dust mass 96 M⊕) relative to Class 0 (248 M⊕), but several times higher than in Class II (5-15 M⊕). If this compact dust emission is tracing primarily the embedded disk, as is likely for many sources, this result provides evidence for decreasing disk masses with protostellar evolution, with sufficient mass for forming giant planet cores primarily at early times.” (Tychoniec et al. 2018)
¶ “The compact components around the Class 0 protostars could be the precursors to these Keplerian disks. However, it is unlikely that such massive rotationally supported disks could be stably supported given the expected low stellar mass for the Class 0 protostars: they should be prone to fragmentation”. (Li et al. 2014)
¶ The discovery that accretion disks are born massive and rapidly diminish with age is both counterintuitive and iconoclastic. Firstly, massive disks around very-young low-mass protostars creates stability problems, and secondly, a rapidly diminishing accretion disk creates problems for the formation of gas-giant planets by hierarchical accretion. Hierarchical accretion may be fighting against two logarithms, with an approximate logarithmic decrease in disk mass from one protostar class to the next (Class 0, 248 M⊕; Class I, 96 M⊕; and Class II, 5-15 M⊕), and with a logarithmic increase in duration for each successive protostar class (Cass 0, 104 yr; Class I, 105 yr; Class II, 106 yr; and Class III, 107 yr).
Evidence for Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) formed by gravitational/streaming instability
¶ “We have searched 101 Classical trans-Neptunian objects for companions with the Hubble Space Telescope. Of these, at least 21 are binary. The heliocentric inclinations of the objects we observed range from 0.6-34°. We find a very strong anticorrelation of binaries with inclination. Of the 58 targets that have inclinations of less than 5.5°, 17 are binary, a binary fraction of 29+7-6 %. All 17 are similar-brightness systems. On the contrary, only 4 of the 42 objects with inclinations greater than 5.5° have satellites and only 1 of these is a similar-brightness binary. This striking dichotomy appears to agree with other indications that the low eccentricity, non-resonant Classical trans-Neptunian objects include two overlapping populations with significantly different physical properties and dynamical histories.”
(Noll et al. 2008)
¶ “The 100 km class binary KBOs identified so far are widely separated and their components are similar in size. These properties defy standard ideas about processes of binary formation involving collisional and rotational disruption, debris re-accretion, and tidal evolution of satellite orbits
(Stevenson et al. 1986).”
¶ “The observed color distribution of binary KBOs can be easily understood if KBOs formed by GI [gravitational instability].” “We envision a situation in which the excess of angular momentum in a gravitationally collapsing swarm prevents formation of a solitary object. Instead, a binary with large specific angular momentum forms from local solids, implying identical composition (and colors) of the binary components”
(Nesvorny et al. 2010)
Hybrid accretion planets and moons:
¶ An alternative planet formation mechanism combines the formation of planetesimals at the inner edge of protoplanetary disks by streaming instability with their hierarchical accretion into cascades (series) of hybrid-accretion planets, with a nominal size of super-Earths, with the term ‘hybrid accretion’ referring to the hybrid mechanism that combines streaming instability and core accretion.
¶ The hybrid mechanism for planet formation was first proposed for the formation of gas giant planets (Thayne Curie, 2005), but the mechanism is instead suggested here for the formation of
terrestrial super-Earths that typically form in multiple-planet ‘cascades’.
¶ Gas pressure causes the gas in accretion disks to rotate slower than a Keplerian rate, and this gas drag on dust grains causes dust to spiral inward to the inner edge or nearest gap in an accretion disk, where the concentration of dust can result in gravitational instability, known as streaming instability.
¶ Planetesimals of indeterminate size condense by streaming instability at the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk, where the accretion disk is presumably truncated by the magnetic corotation radius of its young stellar object (YSO). A myriad of streaming-instability planetesimals merge by hierarchical accretion until the largest hierarchical component is able to open a gap in the accretion disk at a nominal super-Earth mass. The gap in the accretion disk precludes further planetesimal formation by streaming instability against the magnetic corotation radius of the YSO, but it begins the concentration of dust grains against the strongest outer resonances of the anchor super-Earth.
¶ Dust grains accumulate in the accretion disk dead zone beyond the anchor super-Earth that may repeatedly condense by streaming instability to begin the accretion of a second-generation super-Earth, and in this way, a cascade of super-Earths may form sequentially from the inside out.
¶ Giant planets may also form hybrid-accretion moons around giant planets. The 5 planemo moons of Uranus; Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon, are perhaps the best example of a moony hybrid-accretion cascade in our solar system.
¶ Hybrid accretion objects may also form from massive debris disks resulting from cataclysmic events, such as the spiral-in merger of a former binary star. The planet Mercury may be a hybrid accretion planet formed from asteroids condensed by streaming instability from the solar-merger debris disk that formed from the aftermath of the spiral-in merger of our former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma.
¶ Sourav Chatterjee and Jonathan C. Tan quantified this form of inside-out planet formation mechanism in a more general form, encompassing either pebble accretion or ∼1 M⊕ planet formation by gravitational instability. “Formation of a series of super-Earth mass planets from pebbles could require initial protoplanetary disks extending to ∼ 100 AU.” (Chatterjee and Jonathan, 2013)
¶ In cascades of super-Earths, the outermost planetary pair typically exhibit a greater period ratio than the other adjacent planetary pairs, which may give credence to inside-out formation if each super-Earth generation in turn experiences a significant degree of inward migration due to the ‘weight’ of truncating the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk to its outer resonances, except for the final super-Earth.
Flip-Flop Fragmentation (FFF):
¶ ‘Flip-flop fragmentation’ (FFF) is an alternative conceptual ideology for the formation of gaseous satellites by catastrophic disk instability, indirectly forming satellites ranging in mass from gaseous planets to brown dwarfs and companion stars.
Asymmetrical FFF vs. Symmetrical FFF:
¶ FFF (disk instability) of massive disks surrounding diminutive prestellar or protostellar objects is suggested to occur by way of (spiral) density waves, where the mode of the density wave may dictate the type of disk instability. Asymmetrical density waves are suggested to form solitary star systems, while symmetrical density waves are suggested to form twin-binary star systems, possibly with a much-smaller trinary companion star.
¶ 1) Asymmetrical (m = 1 mode) density waves in massive accretion disks around diminutive prestellar/protostellar objects are suggested to condense solitary disk instability (d-i) objects, where the solitary d-i object is much-more massive than its diminutive stellar core. And the greater mass of the d-i object inertially displaces the former stellar core from the center of the system, relegating the former stellar core to a planetary satellite status around the younger, more-massive d-i core. This mechanism is designated, ‘asymmetrical FFF’. Asymmetrical FFF can apparently occur repeatedly, in succession, forming solar systems with multiple gaseous planets.
¶ 2) Symmetrical (m = 2 mode) density waves in massive accretion disks around diminutive prestellar/protostellar objects are suggested to condense twin-binary d-i objects, where the twin-binary d-i objects are also much-more massive then their diminutive stellar core. This mechanism for creating twin-binary stars is designated, ‘symmetrical FFF’. A two-armed spiral, however, does not guarantee that both arms will undergo gravitational collapse, such that an m = 2 mode density wave may result in a solitary d-i object. Presumably, symmetrical FFF, condensing twin-binary d-i objects, can only occur once in a system.
¶ (Inoue & Yoshida, 2019) determined that spiral-arm instability (SAI) is driven by the self gravity of the density-wave (arms), which operates without rapid gas cooling. It is suggested here that inertial dominance by the accretion disk—where the disk is much-more massive than the diminutive core—promotes global SAI, condensing d-i objects by SAI that are necessarily more massive than their diminutive cores, where the term ‘disk-instability (d-i) objects’ is shorthand for objects formed by SAI.
¶ In rotating gravitationally-bound systems, equipartition of kinetic energy progressively projects mass inward, such as in the gradual mass segregation of star clusters and in the gradual emergence of hierarchy in nascent multiple star systems by means of orbital interplay. Additionally, it is suggested here that nature prefers catastrophism over gradualism for projecting mass inward in high-angular-momentum young stellar objects (YSOs) where the accretion disk is much more massive than its diminutive stellar core.
¶ When an accretion disk is less massive than its stellar core, disk inhomogeneities are presumably damped down by the stellar core, whereas when an accretion disk is much greater than its core mass, the diminutive core is presumably unable to prevent small inhomogeneities from amplifying by positive feedback into runaway gravitational instability that is necessarily more massive than the core.
¶ In a spiral density wave, the global pattern speed increases or slows the (Keplerian) rotation of gas and dust passing through the density waves (where the degree of increase or slowing depends on its radial distance), which locally reduces the differential angular velocity of material passing through the density wave spiral arms. And this locally-reduced differential velocity may also promote gravitational collapse.
¶ Asymmetrical FFF breaks the radial symmetry of the accretion disk, condensing a solitary d-i object more massive than the stellar core that catastrophically projects mass inward by displacing the center of mass and center of rotation of the system toward the more-massive, nascent d-i object. Thus, asymmetrical FFF inertially displaces the former stellar core into a planetary satellite orbit around the more-massive, nascent, pithy d-i object.
Decreasing disk mass with protostellar evolution:
¶ FFF ideology is strengthened by a counterintuitive discovery of decreasing accretion disk mass with protostellar evolution. (Tychoniec et al. 2018) measured a dramatic decrease in disk mass dust with increasing protostellar age, where measured dust mass is assumed to be a proxy for overall disk mass. Disk dust mass was measured to decrease from 248 M⊕ in Class 0 protostars to 5-15 M⊕ in Class II protostars, with 96 M⊕ in Class I protostars.
¶ These two divergent trends of decreasing disk mass and increasing core mass with age presumably project back to an early crossover point where disk mass exceeds core mass.
Prestellar FFF vs. protostellar FFF:
¶ Gas giant exoplanets exhibit a distinct bimodal distribution with respect to orbital distances from their host stars. ‘Hot Jupiters’ in low ‘hot’ orbits are defined as having orbital periods < 10 days (< .1 AU), whereas cold Jupiters, orbiting in high ‘cold’ orbits are centered around 2 AU, with a distinct desert of gas-giant planets at intermediate orbital distances.
¶ The inertial displacement distance in FFF is suggested here to depend on the inner diameter of the accretion disk. A low-mass prestellar core in freefall at 10s of Kelvins has no defined diameter, such that the surrounding accretion disk can close in on the prestellar core. In a higher-mass protostellar object with a second hydrostatic core (SHSC) composed of ionized gas, a magnetic field appears that pushes the inner edge of the accretion disk out to the magnetic corotation radius. And if the inertial displacement of the stellar core during asymmetrical FFF is a function of this inner accretion disk radius, then the sudden appearance of a magnetic field in the early protostellar phase is suggested to explain the gas-giant desert separating hot Jupiters, formed by prestellar FFF, from cold Jupiters formed by protostellar FFF.
¶ Additionally, the recent discovery of a bimodal mass distribution of gas-giant exoplanets, with a relative scarcity at about 4 Mj (Santos et al. 2017), suggests a hiatus in asymmetrical FFF at a stellar core mass of 4 Mj. The appearance of the pithy first hydrostatic core (FHSC) at the final stage of the prestellar phase is suggested here to be a viscous mechanism for physically impeding disk instability. As gas infalls onto a prestellar core, its potential energy is radiated away as infrared photons, but when prestellar core reaches a critical density, the gas temperature begins to rise, creating hydrostatic gas pressure, forming the FHSC. Gas infalling onto the hydrostatic core creates a shock front which extends out to radii on the order of ~ 5–10 AU (Tsitali et al. 2013), which is suggested to viscously engage with the accretion disk, damping down positive disk-core feedback necessary for promoting runaway disk instability. The relatively-brief ~ 1000 year FHSC stage marks the end of the prestellar phase, which concludes with an exceedingly-brief second collapse (~0.1 yr), mediated by endothermic dissociation of molecular hydrogen. The pithy FHSC stage marks the prestellar to protostellar transition, which is suggested to result in a disk-instability hiatus at a core mass of 4 Mj. This suggests that prestellar asymmetrical FFF creates gas-giant planets up to 4 Mj, which become hot Jupiters in low ‘hot’ orbits, with a hiatus in asymmetrical FFF at a FHSC mass of 4 Mj, followed by protostellar asymmetrical FFF, creating cold Jupiters, > 4 Mj, in high ‘cold’ orbits.
¶ FFF does not predict gaseous planets smaller than 4 Mj in high cold orbits, but FFF does not exclude them. The appearance of a magnetic corotation radius with the creation of a magnetic field in protostars truncates the inner edge of protostar accretion disks, but the absence of a magnetic corotation radius in prestallar objects presumably does not prevent d-i objects from condensing at distances similar to those formed around protostars, injecting prestellar objects, < 4 Mj, into cold distant orbits, so while FFF does not predict small gaseous planets in high ‘cold’ orbits, it does not exclude them.
Multiple FFF planets:
¶ Multiplicity of gas-giant planets formed by asymmetrical FFF requires successive instances of disk instability in the same system, presumably caused by continued infall of high angular-momentum gas from the envelope onto the accretion disk, regrowing the accretion disk after a previous disk-instability episode.
Hoptunes (mini-Neptunes) and hot-Saturns:
¶ At present, FFF can not explain the observed ’hot-Saturn valley’ (Dong et al., 2018), which is the under representation of Saturn-sized planets (by about an order of magnitude), compared to smaller ‘Hoptunes’ (hot mini-Neptunes) and larger hot Jupiters. This deficiency of hot-Saturns suggests either an unknown mechanism that suppresses Saturn-mass exoplanets formed by FFF, with both hot-Saturns and Hoptunes formed by FFF, or alternatively suggests an unknown planet formation mechanism for Hoptunes, with hot-Saturns as the lower limit of prestellar FFF.
¶ In a high angular momentum prestellar/protostellar system, in which the accretion disk is much more massive than its diminutive stellar core, the disk has inertial dominance of the system. And inertial dominance by an accretion disk is suggested there to promote disk-instability fragmentation. The type of disk instability fragmentation may depend on the mode of a (spiral) density wave resident in the accretion disk, with asymmetrical (m = 1 mode) density waves tending to gravitationally collapse to form solitary disk instability (d-i) objects in a process designated ‘asymmetrical FFF’, while symmetrical (m = 2 mode) density waves tending to gravitationally collapse to form twin-binary disk instability objects in a process designated ‘symmetrical FFF’.
Symmetrical FFF involves two or three dynamical processes:
¶ 1) Symmetrical disk instability,
¶ 2) Equipartition of kinetic energy during orbital interplay, and
¶ 3) Possible trifurcation.
1) Symmetrical disk instability causes an accretion disk to fragment into a twin-binary pair of d-i objects orbiting their diminutive stellar core, in a dynamically unstable system.
2) The twin-binary d-i objects orbiting the much-less-massive stellar core represents a dynamically unstable system, in which close orbital encounters between the massive d-i objects with the diminutive stellar core tends to evaporate the stellar core into a circumbinary orbit around the twin-binary d-i objects in a process known as equipartition of kinetic energy.
3) Orbital close encounters between the diminutive stellar core and the much-more massive d-i objects tend to transfer orbital and rotational energy and angular momentum to the stellar core by equipartition, causing the stellar core to ‘spin up’ (rotate faster). Rotational kicks may eventually cause the stellar core to gravitationally fragment by way of an intermediate bar-mode instability, fragmenting into three components (hence TRIfurcation), namely, a twin-binary pair orbiting a diminutive (residual) core. And first-generation trifurcation can lead to second-generation trifurcation and etc.
¶ Asymmetrical FFF inherently involves inertial displacement of the stellar core from the center of mass of the system, whereas symmetrical FFF requires subsequent phase of orbital interplay to resolve the dynamically unstable symmetrical FFF system, consisting of a twin-binary pair of massive d-i objects in orbit around their diminutive stellar core. Massive objects in orbit around a diminutive core constitute a dynamically unstable system, which is resolved into a stable hierarchical system, by progressive ‘evaporation’ of the diminutive stellar core into a circumbinary orbit around the d-i objects during a period of orbital interplay, as the d-i objects spiral inward to conserve system energy and angular momentum.
¶ In a close orbital encounters between objects with dissimilar masses, the less-massive component receives an energy kick at the expense of the more-massive component by the principle of equipartition of kinetic energy, which is the same principle used to extract orbital energy by interplanetary spacecraft, where the principle is better known as gravitational slingshot or gravity assist. Gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is something of a misnomer, since the spacecraft is parasitizing the orbital energy of the planet by means of a gravitational interaction.
¶ In addition to this orbital energy and angular momentum transfer, equipartition in close orbital encounters is also suggested here to transfer rotational energy and angular momentum to the stellar core, causing an increase in the rotational rate, or a ‘spin up’ of the core. (Scheeres et al. 2000) calculates that the rotation rate of asteroids tends to increase in close encounters of asteroids with larger planemo objects.
¶ Rotational spin up due to equipartition causes a core to distort into an oblate sphere. Additional spin up causes the oblate sphere to further distort into a bar-mode instability. The failure mode of a bar-mode instability is suggested here to be trifurcation, where continued spin up causes the bar-mode instability to fragment into into three components, where the twin bar-mode arms gravitationally pinching off into their own gravitationally-bound Roche spheres in orbit around the diminutive residual core at the center of gravity and rotation.
¶ At the instant of trifurcation, the trinary components closely resemble a smaller version of the original trinary components of its parent symmetrical FFF, in that both systems are comprised of a twin binary pair orbiting a much smaller ‘residual core’. And exactly like symmetrical FFF, the triple components of trifurcation constitute a dynamically unstable system that’s resolved by orbital interplay. Here again, the equipartition of orbital and rotational energy and angular momentum transfer from the the massive twin-binary components to the diminutive residual core. And as in symmetrical FFF, spin up during orbital interplay of the trifurcated components can lead to next-generation trifurcation of the residual core.
¶ Thus, trifurcation of a stellar core following symmetrical FFF fosters next-generation trifurcation, and etc., possibly extending to multiple generations, potentially creating a string of successively-smaller twin-binary pairs, like Russian nesting dolls, with the three sets of similar-sized planets in our solar system (Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune and Venus-Earth) as the paradigm.
¶ Trinary star systems with diminutive companion stars orbiting similar-sized twin-binary pairs, such as Alpha Centauri and L1448 IRS3B, are suggested to have formed by symmetrical FFF, but without subsequent trifurcation. Next-generation trifurcation may be much more probable than trifurcation during symmetrical FFF, and/or heavy stellar cores in relation to the mass of their twin-binary d-i objects may be particularly-resistant to trifurcation.
¶ In our own solar system, symmetrical FFF is suggested to have resulted in
4 generations of trifurcation, which created 4 sets of similar-sized twin-binary pairs:
1) 1st-gen trifurcation of Brown Dwarf (stellar core) >> binary-Companion + SUPER-Jupiter
2) 2nd-gen trifurcation of SUPER-Jupiter >> Jupiter-Saturn + SUPER-Neptune
3) 3rd-gen trifurcation of SUPER-Neptune >> Uranus-Neptune + SUPER-Earth
4) 4th-gen trifurcation of SUPER-Earth >> Venus-Earth + Mercury(?)
(Note, unorthodox capitalization indicates unorthodox definitions. ‘SUPER-Jupiter’, ‘SUPER-Neptune’ and ‘SUPER-Earth’ are the names for the former residual cores formed in the first three trifurcation generations. And ‘Brown Dwarf’ is the name of the original stellar core of the solar sytem.)
¶ Trifurcation is presumably a fractionation process, which pinches off more volatile components into the bar-mode arms, leaving behind a denser, more refractory residual core. Thus in the trifurcation of the SUPER-Jupiter residual core, more of the volatile hydrogen and helium was pinched off into the Jupiter-Saturn twin-binary pair, leaving behind a higher ice and rocky-iron percentage in the SUPER-Neptune residual core. Thus each succeeding generation of twin-binary components is composed of higher-density elements, winding up with final residual core, Mercury(?), having a proportionately-larger iron-nickel core than its twin-binary siblings, Venus and Earth.
¶ If trifurcation is indeed a fractionation process, it predicts that later twin-binary trifurcation generations should tend to have heavier isotopic ratios, such that Venus and Earth should have identical isotopic ratios, which should be heavier than the isotopic ratios of Uranus and Neptune, for instance. This should be true for oxygen isotopes as well, however, all the progeny of the original Brown Dwarf stellar core should lie on the terrestrial fractionation line (TFL) of 3-oxygen isotope plot, assuming no mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes.
¶ The bar-mode instability pathway of trifurcation also predicts that in the trifurcation of internally-differentiated objects, the residual core should acquire a larger iron-nickel core than its much-larger twin-binary siblings. I.e., in the trifurcation of a rocky-iron SUPER-Earth with an internally-differentiated iron-nickel core, lower density crust and mantle material should be preferentially centrifugally slung into the bar-mode arms that pinch off to form the twin-binary pair, while a larger proportion of the denser core material should remain in the residual core. And indeed Mercury has a proportionately-larger iron-nickel core than Earth, although Earth slightly edges out Mercury in overall density, due to the compression of its much-greater gravity. Third-generation trifurcation-product Uranus also has lower density than second-generation trifurcation-product Jupiter, presumably for the same reason, with Uranus presumably having a proportionately-larger iron-nickel core than Jupiter. So each generation of twin-binary pairs should be composed of more-refractory material, which also generally also means higher-density material.
¶ Thus, trifurcation makes makes predictions (unlike pebble/core accretion), such as multiple generations of twin binary pairs in size regression with density progression.
¶ The orbital dynamics in multiple trifurcation generations may become rather chaotic, with orbital close encounters between between twin binary pairs and their residual core tending to make the twin binary pairs spiral in toward ultimate merger, while orbital close encounters with larger components would tend to make twin-binary pairs tend to spiral out toward separation.
¶ In our own solar system, the former symmetrical FFF d-i objects are suggested to have remained gravitationally bound to one another as our former binary-Sun, whose components spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma. Similarly, the first-generation trifurcation twin-binary components are suggested to have also remained gravitationally bound, whose components spiraled in to merge around 650 Ma. The twin-binary components of the second, third and fourth generations, however, spiraled out and separated to form 6 of our planets.
¶ In light of chaotic orbital dynamics, it’s curious that the three sets of twin-binary planets still orbit in pairs, with Venus-Earth interior to Jupiter-Saturn and Uranus-Neptune exterior. This alternative ideology can at present offer no explanation for this planetary ordering.
¶ FFF and trifurcation are suggested catastrophic mechanisms for increasing system entropy by projecting mass inward. While trifurcation reduces subsystem entropy by trifurcating a residual core, this decrease in entropy must be more than offset by an increase in entropy of the larger system, generally by causing a larger twin binary pair to spiral inward.
L1448 IRS3B (See Figure 1):
¶ The Class 0 protostar system, L1448 IRS3B, is suggested to have formed by symmetrical FFF. This triple system is composed of a similar-sized binary pair, IRS3B-a & IRS3B-b, with a combined mass of ~ 1 M☉ in a 61 AU binary orbit, and a distant tertiary companion, IRS3B-c, that has a minimum mass of of ~ 0.085 M☉ at a separation of 183 AU from the binary pair. This system may become more hierarchical over time, coming to resemble the Alpha Centauri system at half the mass.
¶ “Thus we expect the [L1448 IRS3B] orbits to evolve on rapid timescales (with respect to the expected stellar lifetime), especially as the disk dissipates. A natural outcome of this dynamical instability is the formation of a more hierarchical system with a tighter (few AU) inner pair and wider (100s to 1,000s AU) tertiary, consistent with observed triple systems.” (Tobin et al. 2016)
¶ The tertiary star, IRS3B-c, is embedded in a spiral arm of the outer disk, where the spiral arm has an estimated mass of 0.3 M☉. The standard model of companion star formation expressed by Tobin et al. suggests that IRS3B-c formed in situ by gravitational instability from the spiral disk, making IRS3B-c younger than IRS3B-a & IRS3B-b, but problematically, circumbinary IRS3B-c is brighter at at 1.3 mm and 8 mm than its much more massive siblings, as is clearly apparent in the image above. Alternatively, the brighter tertiary companion, IRS3B-c, appears to refute the standard model and support the alternative asymmetrical FFF origin, attributing greater brightness to greater age, making the diminutive companion the progenitor of the younger, larger twin-binary pair.
¶ Since the iron core of Earth’s Moon is disproportionately small compared to Earth’s iron core, the Moon is apparently not the residual core of twin-binary Venus-Earth, captured by Earth. An alternative origin story is suggested by the visual depiction of computer models of bar-mode instabilities, where bar-mode instabilities are suggested stage of trifurcation immediately proceeding gravitational fragmentation.
¶ A conspicuous component of the bar-mode instability structure is the twin pair of tails that trail behind ends of the bar-mode arms, causing the bar-mode structure more closely resemble a pinwheel, as depicted in the following dynamical bar-mode instability video, Dynamical Bar-mode Instability
¶ A ‘pinch-off moon’ is suggested to form during trifurcation when the trailing tail gravitationally pinches off into its own moony Roche sphere while its associated bar-mode arm is also gravitationally pinching off into its own planetary Roche sphere. And the resulting pinch-off moon remains gravitationally attached to its twin-binary planet.
¶ In addition to Earth’s oversized Moon, Titan at Saturn and Triton at Neptune are suggested to have formed as pinch off moons, with all other moons as either captured moons or hybrid-accretion moons.
¶ Triton’s retrograde orbit around Neptune suggests the intriguing possibility that pinch-off moons may form around their host planets in almost equal proportions of prograde and retrograde orbits, or even that pinch-off moons necessarily form in prograde-retrograde pairs, with one twin-binary trifurcation component inheriting a prograde pinch-off moon while its (anti) twin-binary trifurcation component inherits a retrograde pinch-off moon.
¶ Jupiter is suggested as having had a former retrograde pinch-off moon whose orbit decayed and spiraled to merge with the planet at 4,562 Ma, possibly condensing enstatite chondrites and possibly melting water ice in CI chondrites, forming dolomites in internal fissures.
¶ Venus is suggested as having a former retrograde pinch-off moon whose orbit decayed and spiraled in to merge with the planet at 541 Ma, entirely resurfacing the planet and contaminating Earth with former Venusian lifeforms, causing the Cambrian Explosion on Earth.
– Jupiter: retrograde pinch-off moon that merged with the planet at 4,562 Ma
– Saturn: prograde pinch-off moon Titan
– Uranus: lost prograde(?) pinch-off moon
– Neptune: retrograde pinch-off moon, Triton
– Venus: retrograde pinch-off moon that merged with the planet at 541 Ma
– Earth: prograde pinch-off moon, Luna
Hybrid accretion moons:
¶ Cascades of hybrid accretion moons apparently form around gas- and ice-giant planets, similar to the cascades of hybrid-accretion super-earths which form around dwarf stars. The large planemo moons of Uranus are the best example of an untruncated cascade of hybrid accretion moons in our solar system, with the 4 Galilean moons of Jupiter as an example of an apparent truncated cascade. Possessing a pinch-off moon does apparently does not preclude the subsequent formation of hybrid accretion moons, such as the planemo moons of Saturn inside the orbit of Titan, and likely including Iapetus beyond Saturn.
¶ Venus is suggested to be Earth’s twin from the fourth-generation SUPER-Earth trifurcation. Venus may be Earth’s twin in another way as well, if Venus formerly had a pinch-off moon, similar to Earth’s moon in size and composition. Venus’ moon, however, was presumably in a doomed retrograde orbit like Triton around Neptune. Triton’s decaying orbit will spiral in to merge with Neptune in about 3.6 billion years, while Venus’ former pinch-off moon may have already done so in a ‘Venusian cataclysm’ at 541 Myr. A Venusian cataclysm caused by the spiral-in merger of a former retrograde moon would explain why the surface of Venus has been ‘recently’ resurfaced. The nearly-random spatial distribution of Venus’ low crater count suggests 300-500 Myr resurfacing (Price & Suppe 1994), or 300-1000 Myr resurfacing (McKinnon et al. 1997).
¶ Pancake-shaped coronae on Venus, caused by mantle upwelling, may be evidence of a protracted digestion of its former moon, with Venus’s sulfurous atmosphere presumably sustained by continued volcanic outgassing. “Sulphur dioxide is a million times more abundant in the atmosphere of Venus than that of Earth, possibly as a result of volcanism on Venus within the past billion years.” (Marcq et al 2013)
¶ The sudden appearance of all modern phyla on Earth in the Cambrian Explosion is consistent with the catastrophic merger explosion contamination of Earth by our closest planetary neighbor, if Venus rather than Earth were the original cradle of complex life in the inner solar system. And presumably Venus contaminated the rest of the inner solar system with Venusian lifeforms as well, to a greater or lesser degree.
¶ For Venus’ retrograde orbit to be the result of a merger with a former retrograde moon requires that the moon’s retrograde orbit had more angular momentum than Venus’ former prograde rotation. Part of the prograde-to-retrograde planetary rotation transition (angular momentum transfer) would have occurred progressively during 4 billion years of Venus-moon tidal interactions, but the majority of the angular momentum transfer would have been cataclysmic, at impact.
¶ An object in a circular orbit has only half the potential and kinetic energy necessary to achieve escape velocity, so presumably very few massive chunks of moon or planetary surface escaped Venus’ gravitational well. Volatile loss of vaporized rock would have fogged the inner solar system, perhaps causing the Baykonurian glaciation at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary by reducing the solar incidence on Earth.
¶ Finally, part of the elevated temperature of Venus and its atmosphere (above and beyond the greenhouse effect) could be directly attributable to continued cooling from the Venusian cataclysm, and presumably the vast majority of the greenhouse gasses causing indirect greenhouse heating are attributable to the cataclysm as well, converting Venus from more hospitable to life than Earth prior to 541 Ma to the most inhospitable object in the solar system afterward.
Protoplanetary disk and three debris disks:
– Protoplanetary disk (> 4,567 Ma) — Brown Dwarf, Mars(?), Oort cloud comets(?), CI chondrites(?)
– Trifurcation debris disk [inferred] (> 4,567 Ma) — old hot-classical KBOs
– Solar-merger debris disk (4,567 Ma) — asteroids, chondrites
– Companion-merger debris disk [inferred] (650 Ma) — young cold-classical KBOs, Ceres(?)
– Protoplanetary disk, >4,567 Ma:
¶ Former Brown Dwarf is may have condensed trillions of kilometer-scale planetesimals from the protoplanetary disk by streaming instability against its magnetic corotation radius, many of which may have accreted to form Mars, and possibly other missing planets in possible former hybrid-accretion planet cascade around Brown Dwarf.
¶ The vast majority of the leftover protoplanetary planetesimals were presumably scattered into the Oort cloud or out of the solar system altogether during the upheaval of symmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcation, and small protoplanetary planetesimals may have vaporized altogether in the lumious red nova phase of the binary-Sun merger at 4,567 Ma. Subsequently, a number of protoplanetary planetesimals may have been reintroduced into the inner solar system from the Oort cloud reservoir as CI chondrites.
– Trifurcation debris disk, Brown Dwarf reservoir, >4,567 Ma:
¶ Rotational fragmentation of a core by trifurcation is presumably an inefficient and messy process in which a sizable percentage of Brown Dwarf mass vaporized to form a trifurcation debris disk during 4 generations of trifurcation.
¶ The trifurcation debris disk had a high angular momentum content, extending beyond Neptune, ‘condensing’ planetesimals, presumably by streaming instability, against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances, principally against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance. Today, this reservoir presumably constitutes Plutinos and hot classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), as well as scattered disk, extended scattered disc and detached objects, scattered into their ‘hot’ perturbed orbits by the tidal effects of former binary-Companion.
¶ The trifurcation debris disk was derived from the homogenized Brown Dwarf reservoir defines the 3-oxygen-isotope terrestrial fractionation line (TFL), including all 6 trifurcation planets (excluding Mars and possibly Mercury), as well as the trifurcation debris disk condensates, including; hot classical KBOs, scattered disk, extended scattered disc and detached objects. Mass-dependent fractionation during trifurcation, debris-disk processing and streaming instability may separate the trifurcation planets streaming-instability objects along the TFL, but only mass-independent fractionation could displace objects off the TFL, above or below it.
¶ Additionally, trifurcation of internally-differentiated objects, with iron-nickel cores, would tend to vaporize and spatter surficial siderophile-depleted material, and brown dwarfs (and smaller gaseous and terrestrial planets) are understood to to be internally differentiated, unlike larger stars with significant internal thermal circulation, so the resulting trifurcation debris disk is assumed to have had a siderophile-depleted composition, depleted in iron, nickel, and the siderophile platinum group elements, including iridium. A siderophile-depleted debris disk extrapolates to siderophile-depleted hot classical KBO, et al. And siderophile depleted hot classical KBOs that lie on the terrestrial fractionation line plays into the alternative suggestion that gneissic continental basement rock could be extraterrestrial, formed by ‘aqueous differentiation’ of KBOs, perturbed into the inner solar system by tidal effects of former binary-Companion. (See section, AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs))
– Solar-merger debris disk, solar-merger reservoir, 4,567 Ma:
¶ Perturbed by former binary-Companion, the former twin binary-Sun components are suggested to have spiraled in to merge at 4,567 Ma, apparently elevating the temperature of the merging core to the point of fusing r-process radionuclides, notably 26Al and 60Fe. The solar-merger debris was also variably enriched in the helium-burning stable isotopes, notably 20 Ne, 16O and 12C. The stellar merger created a luminous red nova (LRN) that may have briefly extended into the Kuiper belt, which quickly dissipated and left behind a low angular-momentum ‘solar-merger debris disk’ in the inner solar system. Calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs) apparently condensed from polar jets squirting from the merging cores with canonical 26Al concentrations, and chondrules appear to have formed episodically, as violent solar flares melted dust bunnies, during a circa 3 million year flare star phase of the Sun following its binary merger.
¶ Asteroids are suggested to have quickly condensed by streaming instability against the Sun’s post-merger super-intense magnetic field, while the short-lived radionuclides were still highly radioactive, causing these early condensates to ‘thermally differentiate’ (melt internally). (Carbonaceous) chondrites may have condensed over the course of the next 5 million years by streaming instability, against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances
¶ If the planet Mercury is not the residual core of the 4th-generation-trifurcation (Venus-Earth-Mercury), then Mercury may be a hybrid-accretion planet accreted from refractory asteroids condensed against the Sun’s greatly-expanded solar-merger magnetic corotation radius.
possibly near the orbit of Mercury.
¶ The stellar merger imparted very-little angular momentum to the nova debris, apparently confining the solar-merger debris disk to the inner solar system. The debris disk may have been more in the form of a ring near the orbit of Mercury, dragged into Keplerian rotation by the Sun’s magnetic field. Then gradually over the next several million years, the disk may have extended out as far as Jupiter, as the chaotic debris gradually extracting angular momentum from Jupiter itself, enabling the in situ condensation of undifferentiated chondrites against Jupiter’s inner resonances, after the radioactivity of the short-lived radionuclides had largely decayed away.
¶ The LRN may have extended well into the Kuiper belt, melting an igneous crust on the surface of hot classical KBOs, as well as melting an igneous crust on the terrestrial planets, as well as extant gas-giant moons, and small (< 1 Km) presolar planetesimals may have vaporized altogether.
– Companion-merger debris disk, 650 Ma:
¶ The super-Jupiter components of former binary-Companion presumably spiraled in to merge at about 650 Ma, fogging the solar system with binary-Companion merger debris, causing the Marinoan glaciation on Earth. The binary-Companion merger presumably resulted in an asymmetrical merger explosion which gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. While the binary-Sun merger at 4,567 Ma was vastly more energetic than the binary-Companion merger at around 650 Ma, the later Companion-merger debris disk inherited vastly more angular momentum, apparently creating a debris disk that extended well beyond Neptune, which is suggested to have condensed a young population of cold classical KBOs.
¶ The proceeding Sturtian glaciation (715–680 Ma) of the Cryogenian Period points to a prolonged period of solar system fogging long before the actual binary-Companion merger at 650 Ma. This earlier Sturtian glaciation suggests a series of moony mergers with the super-Jupiter-mass binary-Companion components, as the super-Jupiter-mass binary components spiraled inward.
¶ A young, ‘cold classical KBO’ population presumably condensed in situ by streaming instability against the strongest outer resonances of Neptune from the Companion-merger debris disk, primarily against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance. Presumably the earlier moony mergers that also fogged the solar system during the Sturtian glaciation did not eject sufficient mass to condense planetesimals.
¶ The young, cold-classical KBO population should lie on the TFL like the old hot-classical KBO population, but the young population should have a siderophile signature, since the binary-Companion-merger debris included siderophile material from the cores of the merging super-Jupiter-mass components.
¶ The companion-merger debris disk also inherited the Brown Dwarf D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) ratio. A measurement of the D/H ratio in the cold classical KBO population could determine if one or both binary-Companion components were above or below the brown-dwarf deuterium-burning threshold.
Solar system summary and evolution:
¶ A massive accretion disk around a diminutive brown-dwarf-mass core underwent symmetrical FFF, condensing a twin-binary pair of disk-instability (d-i) objects. The resulting system, comprised of a massive twin binary pair of prestellar d-i objects orbiting the diminutive Brown Dwarf, was dynamically unstable, resulting in a period of orbital interplay which progressively ‘evaporated’ Brown Dwarf into a circumbinary orbit around the twin binary pair which concomitantly spiraled inward to became ‘binary-Sun’. Orbital interplay caused Brown Dwarf to spin up and undergo 4 generations of trifurcation, forming a binary-Companion, along with the trifurcation planets. Perturbations from former binary-Companion caused the stellar-mass binary-Sun components to spiral in and merge at 4,567 Ma, creating a luminous red nova, which quickly retreated to leave behind the ‘solar-merger debris disk’, which condensed asteroids and chondrites by streaming instability.
Symmetrical FFF, followed by 4 generations of trifurcation:
¶ Our solar system at one time is suggested to have formed 5 transitory twin-binary pairs; binary-Sun, binary-Companion, Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune, and Venus-Earth.
1) Symmetrical FFF — binary-Sun + Brown Dwarf (stellar core)
2) First-generation trifurcation — binary-Companion + SUPER-Jupiter (residual core)
3) Second-generation trifurcation — Jupiter-Saturn + SUPER-Neptune (residual core)
4) Third-generation trifurcation — Uranus-Neptune + SUPER-Earth (residual core)
5) Fourth-generation trifurcation — Venus-Earth + Mercury(?) (residual core)
¶ The suggested super-Jupiter-mass twin-binary components of binary-Companion did not separate like the binary components of the three younger trifurcation generations, creating a quaternary system, composed of binary-Sun and binary-Companion in a wide binary orbit around the solar system barycenter, with a Sun-Companion separation on the order of hundreds of AU.
¶ Following binary-Sun merger at 4,567 Ma, perturbations from the rest of the solar system caused binary-Companion components to spiral in over time, the increased binding energy of the binary-Companion system went into progressively increasing the Sun-Companion eccentricity over time, conserving system energy. This progressively-increasing Sun-Companion eccentricity caused tidal perturbation to progress outward through the Kuiper belt over time, causing the late heavy bombardment of the inner solar system by KBO impacts as the tidal perturbation progressed through the classical Kuiper belt.
¶ Ultimately, binary-Companion’s binary components spiraled in to merge at around 650 Ma in an asymmetrical merger explosion which gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun. And the Companion-merger debris disk condensed a young population of cold-classical KBOs against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance.
¶ Mercury has two potential origin stories which seem equally plausible; first, as the fourth-generation residual core of the SUPER-Earth trifurcation, > 4,567 Ma, and second, as a hybrid accretion planet formed from the 4,567 Ma solar-merger debris disk. Both alternatives predict a large iron-nickel core, with trifurcation placing Mercury on the 3-oxygen-isotope terrestrial fractionation line (TFL), while a hybrid accretion origin suggests 16O enrichment, placing Mercury below the TFL But even a trifurcation origin should be heavily contaminated by asteroid impacts.
¶ Venus is suggested to be the twin of Earth from the fourth-generation SUPER-Earth trifurcation, and similar to Earth, Venus may have also had a former (oversized) pinch-off moon. But Venus’ former moon was apparently injected into a doomed retrograde orbit that decayed and spiraled in to merge with the planet at 541 Ma in the ‘Venusian cataclysm’.
¶ Low crater counts indicate that Venus has been entirely resurfaced, either in the last 300-500 Mya (Price & Suppe 1994), or in the last or 300-1000 Myr (McKinnon et al. 1997). The numerous massive pancake-shaped coronae on Venus may be the result of a messy digestion of the moon that still occasionally erupts to form massive new coronae. And the oppressive sulfurous atmosphere is presumably attributable to cataclysm outgassing. “Sulphur dioxide is a million times more abundant in the atmosphere of Venus than that of Earth, possibly as a result of volcanism on Venus within the past billion years.” (Marcq et al 2013)
¶ The sudden appearance of all modern lifeform phyla on Earth in the Cambrian Explosion supports a bright-line moony-merger contamination of Earth, making Venus the cradle of complex life in the inner solar system which it relayed to Earth in the midst of its 100% extinction event cataclysm.
¶ Venus’ present retrograde rotation suggests that at formation, the moon’s retrograde orbit contained slightly-more retrograde angular momentum than the planet’s prograde rotational angular momentum.
¶ Earth is suggested to be the twin of Venus from the fourth-generation SUPER-Earth trifurcation. Earth is presumed to have acquired its pinch-off Moon during trifurcation, as the trailing tail of the bar-mode arm which formed Earth and gravitationally pinched off into a separate Roche sphere, remaining gravitationally bound to the planet.
¶ The Great Unconformity is suggested to have been caused by a cataclysmic solar-system event, resulting from the 650 Ma spiral-in merger of former binary-Companion that gave the newly-merged Companion an escape-velocity kick from the Sun. The loss of former binary-Companion eliminated the centrifugal force of the Sun around the former Sun-Companion barycenter, causing all heliocentric objects to fall into slightly-lower, shorter-period orbits, resulting in super tsunamis on Earth, with the concomitant catastrophic erosion of the Great Unconformity. Additionally, the Marinoan glaciation of the (Snowball Earth) Cryogenian Period is suggested to have been caused by fogging of the solar system by the Companion-merger debris disk, with the earlier, more prolonged Sturtian glaciation caused by moony mergers with the binary-Companion components as they spiraled inward.
¶ Earth was presumably contaminated by Venusian lifeforms at 541 Ma, causing the Cambrian Explosion of new lifeforms on Earth, when Venus’ former retrograde pinch-off moon’s orbit decayed to merge with the planet in the Venusian cataclysm.
¶ The continental tectonic plates on Earth are suggested to be cored by authigenic gneissic sediments, precipitated, lithified and metamorphosed in the cores of hot classical KBOs, which were perturbed into the inner solar system from the Kuiper belt by tidal effects of former binary-Companion. (See section, AQUEOUS DIFFERENTIATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS (KBOs))
Mars, Oort cloud comets and CI chondrites:
¶ Mars is suggested to be a hybrid-accretion planet from the protoplanetary disk which formed around one of the symmetrical FFF components, either around the former Brown Dwarf stellar core, or around one of the twin-binary disk-instability objects which became former binary-Sun. Because of its diminutive size, vastly-smaller than a super-Earth, its most probable progenitor was Brown Dwarf. If so, then today’s Oort cloud comets may be the leftover planetesimals from the hybrid accretion of Mars, scattered into the Oort cloud by the dynamics of symmetrical FFF, followed by 4 generations of trifurcation. CI chondrites, which do not contain solar-merger chondrules and which and lie near the 3-oxygen-isotope Martian fractionation line, may sample this protoplanetary reservoir.
¶ The presumed Brown Dwarf protoplanetary disk former origin of CI chondrites suggests a close affinity with Mars, and indeed CI chondrites lie very near the Martian fractionation line. CI chondrites have a ∆17O (‰) of +0.41 (Burbine & O’Brien 2004), compared to the Martian fractionation line of +0.321 ± 0.013‰ (Franchi et al. 1999). If the ∆17O difference between Mars meteorites and CI chondrites is the result of KBO contamination during the late heavy bombardment, when Mars was presumably peppered with hot classical KBO population which lie on the TFL (with a ∆17O of 0.0‰), then the Martian surface magma sampled by Martian meteorites is contaminated with 22% KBO input.
¶ Jupiter is suggested to be a twin of Saturn from the second-generation SUPER-Jupiter trifurcation.
¶ Perhaps like Venus and Neptune, Jupiter may have once possessed a former pinch-off moon in a doomed retrograde orbit that spiraled in to merge with the gas giant at around 4,562 Ma. The truncated cascade of 4 large Galilean moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, presumably formed by hybrid accretion, may be largely moony-merger debris, with angular momentum gleaned from Jupiter’s rotation by magnetic coupling.
¶ CI chondrites from the asteroid belt exhibit a thermal event that melted water ice and deposited dolomites in this age range, with a 53Mn–53Cr age of dolomites dated at 4,563.8–4,562.5) (Fujiya et al. 2013).
¶ The D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) ratio of Saturn is lower than that of Jupiter by a factor of 0.71 + 0.22% – 0.15, contrary to standard-model predictions of a higher ratio (Pierel et al. 2017). But when the suggested moony merger explosively overflowed Jupiter’s Roche sphere, Jupiter’s outer layers would have become particularly fractionated, due to the enormous 2 to 1 mass difference between deuterium and protium, depleting Jupiter’s outer layers in the much-more-volatile protium.
¶ Perhaps the most compelling evidence for a dramatic inner solar system event pointing to a Jupiter-moony merger around 4,562 Ma are enstatite chondrites, which are the only chondrites to lie on the TFL, pointing to a Brown Dwarf reservoir origin, with a 29I–129Xe age for enstatite chondrites of 4,562.3 +/- 0.4 (Gilmour et al. 2009).
¶ Saturn, is suggested to be a twin of Jupiter from the second-generation SUPER-Jupiter trifurcation. Titan appears to be Saturn’s prograde pinch-off moon, with a neat cascade of smaller planemo hybrid-accretion moons.
¶ Uranus is suggested to be a twin of Neptune from the third-generation SUPER-Neptune trifurcation.
¶ Uranus either did not acquire a pinch-off moon or subsequently lost it, but it exhibits a handsome cascade of hybrid accretion moons which apparently formed after Uranus sideways tilt, since the moons’ orbits are closely aligned with the planet’s rotational axis. While Uranus’ sideways tilt and lack of a pinch-off moon is unexplained, it’s hardly surprising in a solar system suggested to have undergone 4 generations of trifurcation.
¶ Neptune is suggested to be a twin of Uranus from the third-generation SUPER-Neptune trifurcation.
¶ Triton is Neptune’s suggested pinch-off moon, which presumably acquired its a retrograde orbit as a result of trifurcation. Neptune’s smaller moons do not represent a neat cascade of hybrid-accretion moons.
Asteroids and chondrites:
¶ Asteroids and chondrites are suggested to have condensed by streaming instability from a low angular momentum solar-merger debris disk, from the aftermath of the former spiral-in merger of former binary-Sun at 4,567 Ma.
¶ Early-forming asteroids with hot radionuclides may have primarily condensed by streaming instability against the Sun’s greatly expanded magnetic corotation radius, and Mercury may or may not be a hybrid accretion planet formed from these asteroids. The hot radionuclides caused thermal differentiation, raising the internal temperature above the melting point of silicates.
¶ Chondrites formed over the next 5 million years, likely condensing in situ by streaming instability against Jupiter’s strongest inner resonances, with Jupiter’s orbital drag providing the angular momentum to condense chondrites that far from the Sun from a low angular-momentum solar-merger debris disk. Chondrites are not internally differentiated, due to their formation after the radioactivity of the short-lived radionuclides had largely died away.
Hot classical KBOs:
¶ Hot classical KBOs in are suggested to have condensed from the trifurcation debris disk from the Brown Dwarf reservoir against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances, shortly prior to 4,567 Ma. Hot classical KBOs are suggested to lie on the TFL and have a siderophile-depleted composition coincident with Earth’s continental crust, with the basement rock of Earth’s continental crust suggested to be extraterrestrial of hot classical KBO origin.
¶ Hot classical KBOs were presumably condensed against Neptune’s strongest outer resonances in ‘cold’, low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits, which were perturbed into their present ‘hot’, high-inclination high-eccentricity orbits by tidal perturbation by former binary-Companion. The scattered, extended scattered disc and detached objects represent KBOs from this population which were still more perturbed by former binary-Companion.
¶ Additionally, orbital perturbation by former binary-Companion is suggested to have caused internal ‘aqueous differentiation’ of the hot classical population, predominantly by causing binary KBOs to spiral in and merge to become contact binaries, melting saltwater oceans in their cores. And aqueous differentiation is suggested to have precipitated authigenic gneissic sediments, which subsequently lithified and metamorphosed into gneiss, crowned by mantling sediments, typically comprised of quartzite, marble and schist. So progressive binary-Companion perturbation of the hot classical KBO population both initiated internal aqueous differentiation, as well as orbitally perturbing many differentiated KBOs into the inner solar system.
Cold classical KBOs:
¶ Young, cold classical KBOs are suggested to have condensed in situ against Neptunes outer 2:3 resonance from the young Companion-merger debris disk, formed from spiral-in merger debris of former binary-Companion, around 650 Ma.
¶ Cold classical KBOs are often binary systems, composed similar-size and similar-color binary pairs, in ‘cold’, low-inclination low-eccentricity orbits, presumably due to in situ condensation by streaming without subsequent orbital perturbation by former binary-Companion. Additionally, cold classical KBOs tend to be red in coloration, while hot classical KBOs are more heterogeneous, tending toward bluish hues.
¶ Presumably few if any cold classical KBOs have been perturbed into the inner solar system, with the loss of former binary-Companion, likely with none having impacted Earth.
¶ The Pluto system presumably formed in situ by streaming instability against Neptune’s outer 2:3 resonance. The geologically active surface of Pluto, revealed in 2015 by the New Horizons spacecraft, may point to its membership in the young KBO population, condensed from the binary-Companion debris disk at 650 Ma.
¶ The binary Pluto system appears to have formed by symmetrical FFF, followed by 2 generations of trifurcation from a very-diminutive core, resulting in three twin-binary pairs, namely, the symmetrical FFF twins, Pluto-Charon, the first-generation twins Nix-Hydra, and the second-generation twins Styx-Kerberos. This formation sequence would make the Pluto system very similar to the formation sequence of our solar system as a whole, despite being a heliocentric satellite. Pluto’s smaller moons are very much smaller than Pluto and Charon (circa 31,600 times less massive than Charon), which may point to differing FFF dynamics between gaseous stellar systems and dusty streaming-instability systems in orbit around gas giants and stars.
¶ Detached objects, also known as extended scattered disc objects (E-SDO), distant detached objects (DDO) or scattered-extended objects are a class of minor planets belonging to trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), with perihelia sufficiently distant from Neptune to be considered detached from planetary influence.
¶ The relative aphelia alignment of detached objects, such as Sedna and 2012 VP-113, is suggested here to be a fossil alignment of KBO aphelia with the former Sun-Companion axis, where shorter period KBOs have randomized their orientations since the loss of binary-Companion, around 650 Ma.
Flip-flop perturbation of KBOs:
¶ ‘Flip-flop perturbation’ is a suggested progressive orbital perturbation mechanism, caused by the secular evolution of the Sun–binary-Companion system. The secular evolution was caused by the progressive energy transfer from the close-binary super-Jupiter-mass components of binary-Companion to the wide-binary components of the Sun-Companion system, in which the binary-Companion components progressively spiraled in, causing the wide-binary Sun-Companion system to become progressively eccentric over time. This progressive eccentricity of the Sun-Companion system caused a progressive tidal dynamic in the Kuiper belt, which can be illustrated by lunar tides on Earth.
¶ Earth has two lunar high tides, a near-side high tide, nearest the Moon, and a far-side high tide, farthest from the Moon, with low tide half way between the two high tides. As the Earth rotates, ocean water flip-flops from high tide to low tide to high tide and etc. The orbital analogy is suggested to have affected heliocentric orbits in the Kuiper belt, where KBOs experiencing near-side high tide had their aphelia pointed toward binary-Companion, while KBOs experiencing far-side high tide had their aphelia centrifugally slung 180° away from from binary-Companion. This orbital aphelia flip-flop mechanism is designated, ‘flip-flop perturbation’.
¶ The low-tide transition between the aphelia flip-flop states is designated, ‘tidal inflection point’ (TIP), and for convenience TIP is defined with respect to the semimajor axes of KBOs. The flip-flop dynamic was not sudden, but instead took the form of aphelia precession, toward or 180° away from from binary-Companion as the tidal inflection point between Sun and Companion seesawed through the Kuiper belt with the Sun-Companion eccentricity. Additionally, the stroke of the TIP seesaw progressively increased its reach from the Sun, over time, with the progressively increasing Sun-Companion eccentricity.
¶ As eccentricity progressively increased the reach of TIP into the Kuiper belt over time, progressively more distant KBOs were subjected to aphelia precession (flip-flop perturbation) as TIP caught up with their semimajor axes for the first time.
¶ If the Sun were 20 times more massive than Companion, then the solar system barycenter (SSB) would be 20 times closer to the Sun than to Companion. Imagine at t = 0 with the SSB at 30 AU when the Sun-Companion are at greatest separation (at Sun-Companion apoapsis).
¶ Saturn in its orbit around the Sun varies its distance from Companion by twice its semimajor axis, by about 19 AU, which is a small percentage of the 20 x 30 = 600 AU closest approach of Companion; however, 19 AU is a huge percentage difference of the 30 AU distance to the SSB, at 30 AU. At all points in Saturn’s orbit the centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB is 180° away from from binary-Companion, which subtracts from the gravitational force on Saturn toward binary-Companion, but since the SSB is much-much closer than binary-Companion, the large variation in centrifugal force across Saturn’s orbit governs major axis alignment, causing Saturn’s aphelion to be centrifugally slung 180° away from from binary-Companion.
¶ Next consider Neptune, with a semimajor axis of 30, which passes directly through the SSB when Neptune is closest to binary-Companion in its orbit. When Neptune passes though the SSB it instantaneously experiences zero centrifugal force away from Companion while experiencing maximal gravitational attraction toward Companion.
¶ Now consider a KBO with a semimajor axis of, say, 40 AU from the Sun. For the portion of the KBO orbit around the Sun which is beyond the SSB at 30 AU, a portion of the centrifugal force vector of the Sun around the SSB adds to the gravitational force vector that points toward binary-Companion, while on the far side of its orbit around the Sun the centrifugal force mostly subtracts from the gravitational force vector. The more distant the KBO, the less the relative effect of centrifugal force is directed away from binary-Companion, to the point that KBOs are suggested to have formed in situ with their aphelia pointed toward binary-Companion.
¶ While the TIP is associated with the SSB, they are not coincident, with the TIP presumably residing further from the Sun than the SSB. Flip-flop perturbation occurs when the eccentrically-increasing TIP (at Sun-Companion apoapsis) overtakes the semimajor axis of a KBO for the first time, causing the KBO’s orbital aphelion to precess from pointing toward binary-Companion to pointing 180° away from it.
Flip-flop perturbation of KBOs is suggested to have had at least two effects on KBOs:
1) Flip-flop perturbation is suggested to have reduced binary KBOs to solitary KBOs, either by separating the binary components, or more likely by causing their binary components to spiral in and merge to form contact binaries. Spiral-in mergers of large binary KBOs would have melted water ice, initiating ‘aqueous differentiation’, which is suggested to have precipitated authigenic gneissic sediments in their cores, which lithified and metamorphosed into gneiss. Earth impacts by aqueously-differentiated KBOs are suggested to be the origin of the basement rock of the continental tectonic plates on Earth.
2) Secondly, Flip-flop perturbation is suggested to have perturbed KBOs into highly-inclined, highly-eccentric orbits, many of which were perturbed out of the Kuiper belt, many into the inner solar system, with the heaviest influx during the period of the late heavy bombardment from about 4.1 to about 3.8 Ga, as the TIP moved through the cubewano population.
Evidence for the first pulse of a bimodal LHB:
¶ Flip-flop perturbation predicts a bimodal late heavy bombardment, with a narrow early pulse, as the TIP encounters Plutinos in a 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune at 39.4 AU, followed by a broader main pulse, as the TIP encounters classical KBOs (cubewanos), which lie between the 2:3 resonance and the 1:2 resonance with Neptune.
¶ Lunar rock in the range of 4.04–4.26 Ga, from Apollo 16 and 17, separates the formational 4.5 Ga highland crust from the 4.1–3.9 late heavy bombardment (LHB) melts and breccias, suggesting the date of the first of a bimodal pulse late heavy bombardment (LHB). (Garrick-Bethell et al. 2008)
¶ Whole-rock ages ~4.2 Ga from Apollo 16 and 17, and a 4.23–4.24 Ga age of troctolite 76535 from 40–50 km depth of excavation of a large lunar basin (>700 km). The same 4.23 Ga age was found in far-side meteorites, Hoar 489 and Amatory 86032. Samples from North Ray crater (63503) have been reset to 4.2 Ga. Fourteen studies recorded ages from 4.04–4.26 Ga (Table 1). (Norman and Neomycin 2014)
¶ In addition to lunar evidence, a 4.2 Ga impact has affected an LL chondrite parent body. (Trieloff et al., 1989, 1994; Dixon et al., 2004)
¶ The proceeding evidence suggests an a sharply-defined early pulse of a bimodal LHB occurring around 4.22 Ga, when the tidal inflection point is suggested to have crossed the 2:3 resonance with Neptune, where the resonant Plutino population orbit.
¶ The relative aphelia alignment of detached objects today, such as Sedna and 2012 VP-113, is suggested to be a fossil alignment of KBO aphelia with the former Sun-Companion axis, where shorter period KBOs have randomized their aphelia orientations since the loss of Companion around 650 Ma.
Sun-Companion eccentricity increases at an exponential rate for 4 billion years:
(See Figure 3)
The actual mass of our former binary Companion is unknown and and relatively insignificant for calculating the suggested exponential rate of progression of the tidal inflection point (TIP) on KBOs through the Kuiper belt. In this subsection, the Alpha Centauri star system is arbitrarily chosen for scaling purposes, with our Sun corresponding to the combined binary mass of Alpha Centauri AB, and our former binary-Companion corresponding to the mass of Proxima Centauri. Since Alpha Centauri AB is almost exactly two solar masses, a former binary Companion half the mass of Proxima Centauri completes the symmetry, suggesting a .0615 solar mass (1/16.26 solar mass) for former binary-Companion.
Note: The following calculations are for the solar system barycenter (SSB) rather than for the TIP, where the tidal inflection point is related to the SSB, but not coincident with it. A working definition of the the TIP is is the distance from the Sun in AU, at a given point in time before 650 Ma, which would cause a KBO aphelia to begin to precess by 180°, where the TIP is defined with respect to KBO semimajor axes. The tidal inflection point is a more complex calculation than the SSB, which is beyond the scope of this conceptual approach, so the simpler SSB is calculated as an rough approximation.
Assuming exponential wide-binary orbit inflation r = 10at+b,
linearized as, log(r) = at + b
. ‘r’ is the log(AU) wide-binary (Sun-Companion) separation
. ‘t’ is time in Ma (millions of years ago)
. ‘a’ is the slope, corresponding to the exponential rate
. ‘b’ is the y-intercept, corresponding to the present (0.0 Ma)
Solve for ‘a’ and ‘b’:
1) SSB at 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU):
1.5955 + 1.2370 = 4220m + b
2) SSB at the classical Kuiper belt spike (43 AU):
1.6335 + 1.2370 = 3900m + b
. 1.5955 = log(39.4 AU), log of Plutino orbit
. 1.6335 = log(43 AU)
. 1.2370 = log(1 + 16.26) This scales the Sun-SSB distance to the Sun-Companion distance. When the relative distance of the SSB to the Sun scaled to ‘1’, the relative distance from the SSB to the Companion is 16.26, so the total relative distance from the Sun to the Companion is (1 + 16.26) = 17.26. Adding log(17.26) = 1.2370 is the same as multiplying the distance in AU by 17.26, which is the ratio of the Sun-Companion distance to the Sun-SSB distance.
Solving for ‘a’ and ‘b’, yields:
. r = -t/8421 + 3.334
. a = -1/8421
. b = 3.334
t = 4,567 Ma, r = 618 AU, SSB = 35.8 AU
t = 4,220 Ma, r = 679 AU, SSB = 39.4 AU (Plutinos, 1st bimodal LHB spike)
t = 3,900 Ma, r = 742 AU, SSB = 43 AU (Cubewanos, 2nd bimodal LHB spike)
So the bimodal timing of the LHB may be amenable to calculation and thus predicting a falsifiable double pulse, whereas Grand Tack can not predict the onset of the LHB and does not predict a double pulse.
1) The Sun-Companion tidal inflection point crosses Plutinos in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune (39.4 AU) at 4.22 Ga, causing the first pulse of a bimodal LHB
2) The tidal inflection point reaches the peak concentration of the main belt cubewanos at 43 AU at 3.9 Ga.
Binary-Companion is presumed to have sculpted the inner edge of the inner Oort cloud, which is thought to begin between 2,000–5,000 AU from the Sun, which is in line with a .0615 solar mass binary-Companion (1/2 the mass of Proxima Centauri) reaching apoapsis distance of 1859 AU from the Sun by 635 Ma, having shepherded the comets outward for 4 billion years by progressive orbit clearing.
– Bimodal late heavy bombardment (LHB):
+++ Our former binary-Companion perturbed Plutinos in a brief, early bimodal pulse at 4.22 Ga, followed by the perturbation of cubewanos from 4.1-3.8 Ga in the broader, main bimodal pulse.
– – – Grand Tack does not predict or recognize a bimodal LHB, yet alone predict a brief, early bimodal pulse.
– Bimodal distribution of hot and cold Jupiters:
+++ Asymmetrical FFF explains the distinct gap between the bimodal distribution of gas-giant exoplanets into hot Jupiters in low ‘hot’ orbits and cold Jupiters in higher ‘cold’ orbits as a hiatus in the flip-flop mechanism, during the pithy first hydrostatic core (FHSC) end stage of the prestellar phase, with a corresponding desert of gas-giant masses at 4 Mj, the mass of the FHSC.
– – – Hierarchical accretion suggests that planetary migration causes some gas-giant planets core accreted in cold ‘Goldilocks’ orbits to migrate inward to become hot Jupiters; however, planetary migration does not explain the distinct gap between the two populations, and hierarchical accretion with planetary migration has no explanation for the 4 Mj desert.
– Bimodal distribution of hot and cold classical KBOs:
+++ The bimodal KBO populations ‘condensed’ by streaming instability from two separate debris disks, condensing old (> 4,567 Ma) hot classical KBOs from the trifurcation debris disk, and condensing young (650 Ma) cold classical KBOs from the Companion merger debris disk, with the hot classical KBOS having been perturbed into ‘hot’ high-inclination high-eccentricity orbits by Sun-Companion tidal effects.
– – – The Grand Tack hypothesis provides no distinct mechanism for the disparate populations.
– Twin binary pairs of solar system planets:
+++ Asymmetrical FFF followed by 4 generations of trifurcation explains the 3 twin sets of planets in our solar system, and predicts a missing 1st generation set (binary-Companion).
– – – Hierarchical accretion does not predict and can not explain the apparent 3 twin sets of planets.
– Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) of the early solar system:
+++ In situ formation of stellar-merger SLRs eliminates at least 3 ad hoc variables in the standard model of our early solar system, namely, timing, proximity, and dilution factor/mixing of SLRs from one or more external sources. The mixing inherent in stellar merger would have burned lithium, depleting the merged Sun in this big bang element, and indeed the Sun is depleted in lithium by two sigma, compared to sister stars of the same age and mass.. In addition to f-process nucleosynthesis of SLRs, helium-burning apparently formed stable-isotope enrichments, explaining the oxygen-16 enrichment of the Sun, asteroids and chondrites, compared to Earth.
– – – A nearby supernova which both contributed radionuclides and precipitated the gravitational collapse of our Jeans mass purports to eliminate the timing and proximity variables; however, core-collapse supernovae produce abundant 53Mn, which was relatively absent in our early solar system.
– Venusian cataclysm and the Cambrian Explosion:
+++ The orbital decay and merger of a former retrograde moon of Venus at 541 Ma is suggested to have jolted the planet into retrograde rotation, as well as melting its crust, completely resurfacing the planet, with continuing coronae eruptions accompanied by sulfurous outgassing. The Venusian cataclysm so near to Earth had a spillover effect, apparently contaminating Earth with Venusian lifeforms, causing the Cambrian Explosion on Earth. The Venusian cataclysm is also suggested to have fogged the inner solar system, causing the Baykonurian glaciation at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary. A retrograde moony merger Venusian cataclysm unifies Venusian retrograde rotation, ‘recent’ resurfacing of Venus, Venus’ thick sulfurous atmosphere, the Cambrian Explosion and the Baykonurian glaciation on Earth.
– – – In the standard model, these various phenomena require separate (ad hoc) causes, and nothing has convincingly explained the explosive appearance of all major phyla in the Early Cambrian.
– Relative aphelia alignment of detached objects:
+++ The relative aphelia alignment of detached objects, such as Sedna and 2012 VP-113, is suggested to be a fossil alignment of KBO aphelia with the former Sun-Companion axis, where shorter period KBOs have randomized their orbits since the loss of the Companion at 650 Ma.
– – – The most highly-favored theory evokes an undiscovered Planet Nine to dynamically sustain the relative alignment.
– Snowball Earth and the Great Unconformity:
+++ The spiral-in merger of a former binary-Companion around 650 Ma purports to explain the Marinoan glaciation as the merger-debris fogging of the solar system. Then the Great Unconformity was caused by super tsunamis on Earth, caused by the orbital realignment of all heliocentric orbits to accommodate the loss of a former Companion to the Sun and its associated solar system barycenter. The earlier Sturtian glaciation is suggested to have resulted from earlier moony mergers with the super-Jupiter-mass binary-Companion components as they spiraled inward.
– – – Alternatively, the gouging of bedrock by glaciation ice flows purports to explain the Great Unconformity, but does not explain the cause of Snowball Earth.
André, Philippe; Basu, Shantanu; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, (2008), The Formation and Evolution
of Prestellar Cores, arXiv:0801.4210 [astro-ph].
Burbine, Thomas H.; O’Brien, Kevin M., 2004, Determining the possible building blocks of the Earth and Mars, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Nr 5, 667–681 (2004)
Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, H´ector. G.; Zhang, Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L.; Launhardt, Ralf; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Forster, Jonathan B.; Dunham, Michael M.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Henning, Thomas, (2013), SMA Observations of Class 0 Protostars: A High-Angular Resolution Survey of Protostellar Binary Systems
Campins, H.; Swindle, T. D., 1998, ARE THERE COMETARY METEORITES?, Lunar and Planetary Science XXIX
Chatterjee, Sourav and Tan, Jonathan C., (2013), INSIDE-OUT PLANET FORMATION, arXiv:1306.0576
Curie, Thayne, (2005), Hybrid Mechanisms for Gas/Ice Giant Planet Formation, Astrophys.J. 629 (2005) 549-555
Dixon, E. T., Bogard, D. D., Garrison, D. H., & Rubin, A. E., (2004), Geochim. Cosmochim.
Acta, 68, 3779.
Dong, Subo; Xie, Ji-lin; Zheng, Zheng; Luo, Ali, (2018), LAMOST telescope reveals that Neptunian cousins of hot Jupiters are mostly single offspring of stars that are rich in heavy elements, PNAS, 2018, 115 (2) 266-271
Franchi I. A., Wright I. P., Sexton A. S. and Pillinger C. T. (1999) The oxygen-isotopic composition of Earth and Mars. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 34, 657-661
Fujiya, Wataru; Sugiura, Naoji; Sano, Yuji Sano; and Hiyagon, Hajime, 2013, Mn–Cr ages of dolomites in CI chondrites and the Tagish Lake ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite, Earth and Planetary Science Letters Volume 362, 15 January 2013, Pages 130-142
Garrick-Bethell, I.; Fernandez, V. A.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Becker, T. A., (2008), 4.2 BILLION YEAR OLD AGES FROM APOLLO 16, 17, AND THE LUNAR FARSIDE: AGE OF THE
SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN?, Early Solar System Impact Bombardement.
Gilmour J. D. et al. 2009. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44:573-580
Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naomi, (2019), Spiral arm instability — III. Fragmentation of primordial protostellar discs, arXiv:1908.09576v2 [astro-ph.GA]
Larson, Richard B., (1969), NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A COLLAPSING PROTO-STAR, MNRAS (1969) 145, 271-295.
Li-Yun, Jin; Yun, Li;, Ming, Yang, 1991, RNAA of trace iridium in Precambrian-Cambrian boundary samples by thiourea type chelate resin separation, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, September 1991, Volume 151, Issue 1, pp 107–111
Li, Zhi-Yun; Banerjee, Robi; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Shang, Hsien, Kranopolsky, Ruben; Maury, Anaelle, (2014), The Earliest Stages of Star and Planet Formation: Core Collapse, and the Formation of Disks and Outflows
Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki, (2011), RECURRENT PLANET FORMATION AND INTERMITTENT PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS INDUCED BY EPISODIC MASS ACCRETION, The Astrophysical Journal, 729:42 (17pp), 2011 March 1.
Marchi, S. et al., 2016, The missing large impact craters on Ceres, Nature Communications volume 7, Article number: 12257 (2016)
Marcq, Emmanuel; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Montmessin, Franck; and Belyaev, Denis, (2013), Variations of sulphur dioxide at the cloud top of Venus’s dynamic atmosphere, Nature Geoscience volume 6, pages 25–28 (2013)
Masunaga, Hirohiko; Miyama, Shoken M.; Nutsuka, Shu-ichiro, (1998), A RADIATION HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR PROTOSTELLAR COLLAPSE. I. THE FIRST COLLAPSE, Astrophysical Journal, Volume 495, Number 1.
Minster, J. F.; Ricard, L. P.; Allegre, C. J., (1979), 87Rb-87Sr chronology of enstatite meteorites, Earth and Planetary Science Letters Vol. 44, Issue 3, Sept. 1979
Nesvorny, David; Youdin, Andrew N.; Richardson, Derek C., (2010), Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries by Gravitational Collapse, The Astronomical Journal 140 (2010) 785, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/785
Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, William M.; Stephens, Denise C.; Levison, Harold F.; Kern Susan D., (2008), Evidence for Two Populations of Classical Transneptunian Objects: The Strong Inclination Dependence of Classical Binaries, arXiv:0711.1545.
Pierel, J. D. R.; Nixon, C. A.; Lellouch, E; Fletcher, L. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg1,, R. K.; Bézard, B.; Hesman, B. E.; Irwin, P. G. J. ; and Flasar, F. M., 2117, D/H Ratios on Saturn and Jupiter from Cassini CIRS, The Astronomical Journal, Volume 154, Number 5
Santos, N. C.; Adibekyan, V.; Figueira, P.; Andreasen, D. T.; Barros, S. C. C.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Demangeoun, O.; Faria J. P.; Oshagh, M.; Sousa, S. G.; Viana, P. T. P.; Ferreira, A. C. S.; 2017, Observational evidence for two distinct giant planet populations, Astronomy and Astrophysics 603, May 2017
Scheeres, D. J.; Ostro, S. J.; Werner, R. A.; Asphalug, E.; Hudson, R. S., 2000, Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States, Icarus, Volume 147, Issue 1, September 2000, Pages 106-118
Stevenson, D. J., Harris, A. W., & Lunine, J. I. 1986, Satellites (Tucson, AZ:
Univ. Arizona Press), 39
Trieloff, M., Jessberger, E. K., & Oehm, J., (1989), Meteoritics, 24, 332.
Trieloff, M., Deutsch, A., Kunz, J., & Jessberger, E. K., (1994), Meteoritics, 29, 541.
Tychoniec, Lukasz; Tobin, John J.; Karsaka, Agata; Chandler, Claire; Dunham, Michael M.; Harris, Robert J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Looney, Leslie W.; Melis Carl; Perez, Laura M.; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; and van Dishoeck, Ewine F., (2018), THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS (VANDAM). IV. FREE-FREE EMISSION FROM PROTOSTARS: LINKS TO INFRARED PROPERTIES, OUTFLOW TRACERS, AND PROTOSTELLAR DISK MASSES.
Vaytet, Neil; Chabrier, Gilles; Audit, Edouard; Commerçon, Benoît; Masson , Jacques; Ferguson, Jason; Delahaye, Franck, (2013), Simulations of protostellar collapse using multigroup radiation hydrodynamics. II. The second collapse, Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. vaytet-20130703 c ESO 2013 July 22, 2013.