Baryonic DM appears to require second helium recombination to have occurred almost simultaneously with hydrogen recombination at z = 1100, with global second helium recombination rapidly initiating local, early-onset hydrogen recombination by the gravitational collapse of decoupled helium at the prevailing Jeans mass scale.
¶ Early-onset hydrogen recombination may provide a possibility for baryonic dark matter (DM) if early-onset recombination occurred when the universe had about 6 times the baryon density according to canonical ΛCDM recombination.
¶ The triggering event for early-onset hydrogen recombination is suggested to be gravitational collapse of helium at second helium recombination, which decoupled helium from the primordial photons. Decoupled helium collapsed at the prevailing Jeans mass scale, creating a pressure-temperature gradient that triggered early-onset hydrogen recombination in the chilled and rarefied voids opening up between the collapsing Jeans masses. The temperature-pressure gradient caused the primordial photons to diffuse out of the collapsing ionized Jeans masses and into the neutral voids in between, and the loss of the primordial photons allowed the ionized hydrogen within the Jeans masses to collapse along with the neutral helium into ionized ‘super globules’. The scale of the Jeans mass super globules at second helium recombination is suggested to have been ~ 108 M☉, which is reflected in the tightly-constrained mass range of DM-dominated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) today.
¶ Extrapolating the early-onset hydrogen recombination redshift (z) from the ΛCDM concordance perspective suggests that second-helium recombination occurred almost simultaneously with hydrogen recombination in a significantly inhomogeneous setting. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation indicates that hydrogen recombination occurred at about z = 1100, but from the concordance perspective, hydrogen recombination appears to have occurred earlier (early-onset), when the universe was 6 times denser, making hydrogen recombination appear to have occurred at z = 6(1/3) * 1100 = 1999, and significantly from the concordance perspective second helium recombination occurred at z ≈ 2000. But from the inhomogeneous baryonic DM perspective, hydrogen recombination occurred at z = 1100, with second helium recombination occurring at an insignificantly-higher redshift.
¶ The Jeans mass scale declined over time, causing collapsing super globules to gravitationally fragment and sub fragment down to their ultimate Population III star scale. A sizable portion of Pop III stars are presumed to have evolved along the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) that ended in planetary nebulae, complete with neutral gas globules, like the planetary-mass cometary knots (CKs) of the Helix nebula today. During the thermally-pulsing AGB phase (TP-AGB), helium flashes are suggested to have ejected planetary-mass gas globules by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that were self gravitating and thus self sustaining. These self-gravitating planetary-mass gas globules (‘paleons’ for their old age) are suggested to be the baryonic DM reservoirs of today, which presumably mopped up the bulk of the super-globule gas that didn’t quickly collapse into Pop II stars, converting the early super globules into the DM-dominated dSphs of today.
¶ Paleons are presumably dark because they have ‘snowed out’ almost all their stellar metallicity, which accreted by sedimentation into icy moon-mass nuclei, leaving behind trace levels of gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) to regulate the gas temperature over the icy nuclei just below the triple point of CO (67.9 K).
¶ Baryonic DM requires about 6 times the baryon count that concomitantly increases the baryon to photon ratio by the same factor, which appears to preclude baryonic DM according to canonical Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN); however, BBN may mirror hydrogen recombination in that both phenomena had a neutral particle decoupled from the primordial photons, neutrons in the case of BBN and atomic helium in the case of hydrogen recombination. The gravitational collapse of neutrons prior to and during BBN is suggested to have created substantial density and temperature gradients that caused early-onset BBN in the relative low-density low-temperature voids in between collapsing neutron centers, followed by late-onset BBN in the relative high-density high-temperature collapsing neutron centers, challenging canonical Big Bang nucleosynthesis. And similar to hydrogen recombination, this substantial density and temperature gradient caused photons to diffuse from the collapsing neutron centers to the relative voids in between, locally lowing the baryon to photon ratio for early-onset BBN.
¶ Unlike helium collapse, however, neutron collapse was followed by an elastic rebound following the fusion of neutral neutrons with positive protons in BBN. Elastic rebound into the dense soup following BBN, however, promoted the formation of opposing vortexes with opposing angular momentum vectors, tending to form twin-binary pairs of densified vortexes due to gravitational clumping, suggesting the angular momentum creation mechanism of twin-binary pairs of spiral galaxies such as Andromeda and The Milky Way.
¶ ΛCDM assumes exotic DM particles of unspecified nature to explain the observed rotational rates of spiral galaxy disks and to explain gravitational lensing of distant galaxies by foreground galaxies and galaxy clusters, but so far, all attempts to detect exotic DM particles have failed.
¶ The most intuitive DM candidate is baryonic matter in the form of hydrogen and helium, cloaked by some mechanism, and baryonic DM can more easily hide than exotic DM in a universe littered with luminous baryonic matter in almost innumerable states, concentrations and configurations. Condensed matter baryonic DM reservoirs, such as black holes, neutron stars, black dwarfs, brown dwarfs and rogue gas-giant planets have effectively been ruled out as primary reservoirs by microlensing studies, leaving cold, self-gravitating gas globules as perhaps the final unexcluded possible reservoirs. Cold, dense molecular hydrogen is difficult to detect (Pfenniger and Combes 1994; Pfenniger, Combes and Martinet 1994), and particularly if the vast majority of their stellar metallicity is sequestered into icy chondrules.
¶ The best means of detecting cold globules appears to be occultation of pinpoint radio sources, such as quasars and pulsars, in the form of radio scintillation, and even here, their gaseous surfaces may have to be locally ionized by the UV radiation of hot stars. Quasar scintillation caused by local sources of plasma with high electron densities has been detected for years, but very recently this scintillation has been tied to hot (O,B,A) stars, with copious UV radiation (Walker et al., 2017). This scintillation is suggested to be caused by self-gravitating gas globules trapped in the Hill spheres of hot stars and ionized by their UV radiation, with the mass of trapped gas globules similar to the mass of the star itself.
¶ Alternatively, it is suggested here that the scintillation associated with hot stars is caused by recent coronal mass ejections (CMEs) rather than by primordial gas globules. The connection between solar CMEs and Pop III star CMEs (ejecting primordial gas globules) is a minimum of 12 orders of magnitude, with suggested quasar scintillation CME of hot stars lying 6 orders of magnitude in between.
Early-onset recombination initiated by gravitational collapse of decoupled helium:
¶ A baryonic DM hypothesis requires about 6 times the apparent baryon density in today’s universe. But if hydrogen recombination occurred at canonical conditions in a homogeneous continuum, and if there was no baryonic matter already sequestered into DM at recombination, then the measured redshift of the CMB precludes baryonic dark matter, since it yields an extrapolated baryon density today that agrees well with the observed (luminous) baryon density in today’s universe.
¶ There appear to be 2 possibilities that may allow for baryonic DM under special conditions; first, if 5/6 of the baryonic matter were already dark and thus did not participate in hydrogen recombination, or second, if the universe were sufficiently inhomogenous that early-onset recombination could occur at the cold low-density extremes when the baryon density was 6 times the canonical hydrogen recombination density. In the absence of any likely sequestering mechanism for the first possibility and the suggestion for a likely inhomogeneity mechanism for the second possibility, early-onset recombination emerges as the likely candidate for baryonic DM.
¶ Significantly, second helium recombination appears to have occurred at almost exactly the redshift when the universe was 6 times denser than at canonical hydrogen recombination, at z ≈ 2000 from the ΛCDM perspective. The cube root of 6 gives the increased redshift factor, which when multiplied by the measured cosmic microwave background (CMB) redshift (z = 1100) gives the apparent redshift when the universe was 6 times denser: 1100 * 6(1/3) = 1998.8.
¶ Second helium recombination, occurring at z ≈ 2000 from the ΛCDM perspective, created neutral atomic helium, which decoupled helium from the primordial photons, but helium was still subject to gravity. Electromagnetic decoupling at second helium recombination made helium the dark matter of the late photon epoch, freeing helium to undergo gravitational collapse at the prevailing Jeans mass scale, forming progressively-densifying ‘super globules’.
¶ Gravitational collapse densified and heated the hydrogen and helium within the collapsing helium super globules, while rarefying and cooling the voids that opened up in between, with gravitational collapse creating a progressively steepening temperature and pressure gradient over time.
¶ When the conditions in the rarefying voids decreased to locally canonical hydrogen recombination conditions, protons and electrons reacted to form neutral atomic hydrogen, which locally decoupled the primordial photons, releasing them into increasingly-transparent network of voids surrounding the collapsing ionized super globules. The localized temperature and pressure gradients caused the primordial photons to diffuse out of the densifying globules into the rarefying neutral voids in between, and this loss of primordial photons from the collapsing super globules allowed ionized hydrogen to begin collapsing as well, which dramatically increased the pressure and temperature gradient by positive feedback into runaway diffusion and decoupling of the primordial photons.
¶ Compton scattering cooled the primordial photons to the frequency corresponding to the canonical recombination temperature of ~ 3000 K, as they diffused from warmer, denser super globules into the cooler more-rarefied voids. If recombination were a regulating process, then the photons were necessarily decoupled at the frequency corresponding to the recombination temperature of ~ 3000 K, despite the steep temperature and pressure gradient at early onset. As long as the local inhomogeneity scale was smaller than the scale recorded in the CMB anisotropies, and as long as photon diffusion was relatively-rapid compared to the rate of early-onset recombination, these local inhomogeneities should be invisible in the CMB power spectrum.
¶ Baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) created density gradients at almost the horizon scale, with BAO traveling at almost the speed of light, making BAO compressions and rarefactions essentially adiabatic, thus BAO gradients were accompanied by no appreciable photon diffusion. So in order for significant photon diffusion in an early-onset scenario, the local inhomogeneity scale would have to have been orders of magnitude below the BAO scale.
¶ Compton scattering cooled diffusing primordial photons to the canonical recombination temperature, and after being locally decoupled, the photons began experiencing cosmic redshift, the same as they would have in a homogeneous ΛCDM universe, and this despite ricocheting off the ubiquitous ionized super globules in an inhomogeneous early-onset universe. At the recombination temperature, the vast majority of scattering events were elastic Thomson scattering, which does not change the photon frequency, such that ricocheting off ionized super globules should be undetectable in the CMB power spectrum. Thomson scattering is overwhelmingly predominant over Compton scattering when the photon energy is much much less than the electron rest energy: photon energy at 3000 K = 2-3 eV << 0.511 MeV (electron rest energy). The overwhelming majority of photon scattering during photon diffusion out of the densifying super globules was also elastic Thomson scattering, but enough were Compton scattering to have clamped the photon frequency to the local plasma temperature during photon diffusion.
¶ Early-onset hydrogen recombination only appears to have occurred at redshift of z ≈ 2000 from the ΛCDM perspective, but CMB photons record the actual redshift to be z = 1100 from either perspective. Early-onset recombination appears to suggest a universe that’s 1/6 the volume of the ΛCDM model, with early-onset hydrogen recombination occurring significantly earlier when the universe was 6 times denser, apparently making the universe younger and smaller. A smaller, denser, younger universe is an illusion, however, when considering that exotic DM is merely replaced with baryons in a universe of the same age and size from either perspective. Thus the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale would be identical in both perspectives.
¶ Big Bang nucleosynthesis is a primary process, concerned with proton-neutron reaction products. By comparison, hydrogen recombination is concerned with the secondary process of photon decoupling, which does not necessitate universal hydrogen recombination in the context of a steep density gradient if decoupling is a regulating process. Early-onset recombination suggests that the primordial photons can be liberated after only a small percentage of hydrogen recombines locally, in the context of a steep inhomogeneity gradients initiated by the gravitational collapse of helium following second helium recombination.
¶ Baryonic DM appears to require second helium recombination to have occurred almost simultaneously with hydrogen recombination at z = 1100, with global second helium recombination rapidly initiating local, early-onset hydrogen recombination, precipitated by the gravitational collapse of decoupled helium at the prevailing Jeans mass scale.
Evolution of collapsing helium super globules into dwarf spheroidal galaxies:
¶ The gravitational collapse of decoupled helium at second helium recombination is suggested to have formed super globules at the prevailing Jeans mass scale that evolved into the DM-dominated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) of today.
¶ DSphs appear to be one of the absolutes of cosmology, exhibiting a typical mass range of 107-108 M☉. This circumscribed mass range along with their primitive DM-dominated composition suggests the Jeans mass fragmentation scale following second helium recombination of ~ 108 M☉.
¶ With early-onset hydrogen recombination occurring almost on top of second helium recombination, at z = 1100, the outward diffusion of primordial photons quickly popped the ionized hydrogen balloon, allowing ionized hydrogen to participate in gravitational collapse along with neutral helium. The first sub-fragmentation scale within collapsing super globules was presumably initiated by the collapse of ionized hydrogen. Continuing cosmic expansion progressively lowered the Jeans mass scale, causing sub-sub fragmentation ending with dense cores that precipitated Population III stars.
¶ A significant number of Pop III stars are suggested to have ended their lives as asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, which are suggested to have ejected self-gravitating (hydrostatic) planetary-mass gas globules (paleons) by coronal mass ejection (CME) during their terminal thermally pulsing phase, corresponding closely to the modern equivalent of planetary-mass cometary knots in planetary nebulae today, with the best example being the Helix nebula. These hydrostatic gas globules likely bulked up in mass by a factor or 10 or more in the process of mopping up (accreting) the left over gas from the first generation of Pop III stars within super globules.
¶ The mop up of Pop III star debris by hydrostatic globules competed with the gravitational collapse of unbound gas to form Pop II stars within super globules.
¶ The hydrostatic globules gradually went dark as the vast majority of their stellar metallicity snowed out in the low-temperature high-pressure cores, and the snow and mineral grains presumably accreted by sedimentation into moon-mass icy nuclei within paleons.
¶ Mopping up the aftermath of Pop III and Pop II stars within super globules by paleons, accompanied by the paleons going dark could be defined as the transition from primordial super globules into modern dSphs.
¶ Visually, low-luminosity dSphs can be difficult to discriminate from star clusters of the Galactic plane; however, dSphs exhibit a more complex star formation histories than star clusters, where dSphs typically contain stars of distinctly different ages, indicating multiple star bursts at distinct intervals. Multiple star bursts within dSphs points to intermittent conversion of in situ DM to stars.
Cometary knots (CKs) in the Helix nebula:
¶ The Helix planetary nebula is estimated to possess 40,000 cometary knots (Matsuura et al 2009).
¶ (O’Dell and Handron, 1996) give the density, mass and size of the neutral gas in the estimated 3500 cometary knots of the Helix nebula as, hydrogen density ~ 4 x 106 cm-3, with a CK mass range of ~ 4 x 1025 g to 4 x 1026 g and radii of 60-200 AU, based on the distance to the nebula of 213 pc. This suggests a circa Mars mass (6.4 x 1026 g) upper mass range for CKs, but does not imply that CKs are self gravitating. CKs are non-existent less than 115″ from the host star, and increase in number to the point of overlapping at a distance of 180″. “The fact that there are none in the innermost region argues that the Cometary Knots are confined to a flattened volume rather than being spherically distributed.”
¶ (O’Dell and Handron, 1996) suggest Rayleigh-Taylor instability for CK formation, either in the late planetary nebula phase or early ‘primordial’ accretion disk phase of the young stellar object. If primordial, the objects are suggested to be either solid comets, or vastly-larger self-gravitating clouds; however, none of the O’Dell and Handron hypotheses predate the host star itself.
¶ Manly Astrophysics (Walker et al. 2017) presumes preexisting self-gravitating planetary-mass molecular-hydrogen paleons became trapped in their hot host star Hill spheres during stellar formation, with the cometary knots of the Helix nebula as a luminous example of this otherwise dark form of baryonic matter.
¶ The alternative suggested here is CK formation by coronal mass ejection (CME) during the thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase. Thus, solar CME are suggested to be related to modern CKs in planetary nebulae and primordial paleons from Population III stars by a common formation mechanism, differing only in scale.
DM paleons from Population III stars:
¶ A sizable percentage of Pop III stars are suggested to have evolved along the asymptotic giant branch to become planetary nebulae, complete with self-gravitating planetary-mass gas globules as ‘paleons’ formed by coronal mass ejection. The self-gravitating paleons raced to mop up (accrete) the gaseous aftermath of Pop III star formation from gravitationally collapsing into Pop II stars.
¶ If helium-shell flash in TP-AGB stars indirectly creates sub-Mars-mass CKs by the CME mechanism, then one would naturally expect that sequestering 5/6 of all baryonic matter into self-gravitating paleons would have had to be ultra efficient; however, ultra-efficient paleon formation is contraindicated by the relative paucity of degenerate Pop III stars, in the form of white dwarfs (now black dwarfs) that should have been detected in MACHO microlensing studies. Instead, low to moderate paleon formation efficiency seems to be indicated, where low-mass paleons gradually mopped up the loose gas in ~ 108 M☉ super globules to convert gaseous super globules into the nearly gas-free, DM-dominated dSphs of today. Paleons may have bulked up by a factor of 1 or 2 orders of magnitude in mopping up the gaseous aftermath of Pop III stars, and to a lesser extent Pop II stars. This ‘mop-up’ hypothesis suggests that paleon CMEs were ejected from their degenerate Pop III stars with escape velocity, but that the planetary-mass globules remained gravitationally bound within the larger super globules.
¶ The estimated 60-200 AU radii of CKs in the Helix nebula as paleon analogs provide a huge cross section for gas accretion, if paleons are anywhere near as large as CKs. And the limited scale of super globules contributed to the accretion of the leftover gas from Pop III stars, where paleon orbits around the center of super globules/dSphs would be orders of magnitude less than the circa 230 Myr orbit of the sun around the Galaxy.
¶ Paleon mop up of Pop III star aftermath within super globules raced against its gravitational collapse into the next generation of Pop II stars, but apparently, paleon accretion rarely tipped the scales at a Jeans mass, or significant numbers of rogue brown dwarfs would have shown up in microlensing MACHO studies.
¶ High pressures and low temperatures near the center of paleons promoted/promotes condensation of stellar metallicity, presumably including carbon monoxide as snow. Condensed stellar metallicy in the form of snow is not hydrostatically supported in paleons and thus undergoes freefall to the center of gravity, where it has presumably accreted into moon-mass icy nuclei. Sedimentation within paleons also included/includes preexisting mineral grains, such as silicon carbide that condensed directly from stellar events, such as from stellar wind, novae, supernovae, AGB stars, Wolf-Rayet star, and etc. A hypothetical Earth-mass paleon with 1% stellar metallicity would presumably possess an icy nucleus with a mass similar to Earth’s Moon.
¶ Carbon monoxide and temperature are suggested here to mutually regulate one another in paleons around the triple point of carbon monoxide (67.9 K, 15.35 kPa) at very-high central pressures over the icy nuclei. Gaseous carbon monoxide is efficient at converting thermal heat to infrared radiation, which escapes from the paleon at the speed of light, cooling it down, but lower temperatures promoted by gaseous CO cause CO to condense (snow out), reducing the gaseous CO concentration. Thus paleon temperature is presumably regulated around the triple-point temperature of CO (67.9 K) near the icy nucleus, leaving only trace levels of CO in the gaseous state. The paleon temperature profile presumably increases radially beyond the CO frost line, presumably making paleons some 10 times warmer than infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) of the disk plane, such as Bok globules, where CO exists in the gaseous state. This relative absence of gaseous and particulate stellar metallicy in paleons renders them virtually dark below UV frequencies effectively absorbed by molecular hydrogen.
¶ Underdamped regulation would alternate between sublimation and condensation, with a corresponding temperature oscillation, whereas quiescent regulation would maintain temperature/CO concentration dependent on heat input, where the bulk of paleon radiation exposure is nearly constant in the form of cosmic rays, with intermittent spikes due to close encounters with stellar objects.
¶ Apparently the column density of CO in paleons is below noticeable levels, if not below the level of detection, which is presumably several orders of magnitude lower than the column density of IRDCs, which are quite capable of blotting out background stars entirely.
¶ Both temperature and mass affect the diameter of paleons, but calculations are beyond the scope of this conceptual approach.
¶ In summary, a significant number of Pop III stars presumably evolved by the AGB pathway to end their lives as white dwarfs at the center of luminous planetary nebulae, complete with self-gravitating planetary-mass CMEs, similar to the CKs of the Helix nebula. These CKs mopped up (accreted) the lion’s share of unbound gas within super globules that didn’t collapse into Pop II stars. Paleons apparently regulate their core temperatures around the triple-point temperature of CO (67.9 K) by snowing out (sequestering) the vast majority of their gaseous carbon monoxide onto their icy nuclei, rendering the remaining molecular hydrogen and helium as effectively invisible DM, making hydrostatic planetary-mass paleons the baryonic DM reservoirs of the universe.
¶ Manly Astrophysics (Walker et al., 2017) proposes baryonic DM in the form of primordial planetary-mass globules of self-gravitating gas in hydrostatic equilibrium, designated, ‘paleons’. The evidence for paleons comes from the scintillation of quasars by foreground plasma, where the best analyzed scintillation appears to lie within or just beyond the Hill spheres of hot A stars. The scintillating plasma is radially elongated toward the hot stars, and the plasma has a relatively-small differential velocity with respect to their presumed host stars. The quantity of gas globules (~ 105) necessary to explain the rate of quasar scintillation around hot stars is calculated to be on the order of the mass of the host star itself, assuming paleons are long-lived hydrostatic objects that require a planetary-mass to be self gravitating. Manly Astrophysics hypothesizes that ~ 105 paleons are gravitationally bound within the Hill spheres of hot stars, which are nominally detectable through quasar scintillation and may become visually evident in planetary nebulae terminal phase.
¶ The evidence that gas globules within the Hill spheres of hot stars are approximately equivalent to the masses of the host stars themselves presumes that the scintillation is caused by self-gravitating gas globules and secondly, from a piece of circular logic. The radial scintillation pointing to Iota Centauri (Alhakim) is 1.75 pc from its presumed host star, but for a distance of 1.75 pc to lie within the Hill sphere of Iota Centauri requires an additional 5 M☉, which requires planetary-mass gas globules to be gravitationally bound at that distance.
¶ Alternatively, a CME origin for hot-star quasar scintillation requires a continual production of large CMEs to keep the Roche sphere populated, since CMEs are born with escape velocity; however, while hot star CMEs would have to be many orders of magnitude more massive than solar CMEs, since CMEs presumably expand exponentially in time and radial distance from their host stars, they would also have to be many orders of magnitude less massive than the CKs of planetary nebulae.
¶ Solar CMEs have varying ejection velocities, some slower than the mean solar wind velocity of 145 km/s and some faster, where solar CME interaction with the solar wind speeds up the slower ones and slows down the faster ones. The 40 km/s expansion rate of the inner ring of the Helix nebula (O’Dell et al., 2004) has apparently overtaken the CKs to create cometary tails, suggesting a lower radial velocity for the CKs themselves, suggesting that larger CMEs may have smaller radial velocities.
¶ The expansion of solar CMEs reduces the electron density to about 10 cm-3 at a radial distance of 1 AU, falling off rapidly as a function of R-3 (University of Reading, PROPAGATION OF INFORMATION WITHIN CORONAL MASS EJECTION). Coincidentally, the 1 AU solar electron density of 10 cm-3 is the calculated electron density responsible for intra-day variability (IDV) quasar scintillation (Tuntsov, Bignall and Walker 2013).
¶ The Manly Astrophysics calculated quantity of scintillating plasma masses (105) within hot star Roche spheres is not an issue for a CME origin, considering that solar CME are created at a rate of about 3 a day near solar maxima, and one every 5 days near solar minima (NASA archive, ‘Coronal Mass Ejection’); however, exponential expansion of CME may not require nearly as many plasma masses to create the observed rate of quasar scintillation, if exponentially-expanding hot star CME are much larger in area than hydrostatic paleons.
¶ The first stellar CME was measured in 2019 around OU Andromedae (HR 9024), with a calculated CME mass of 1.2 +2.6 -0.8 x 1021 g and a velocity of 90 +/- 30 km/s (Argiroffi et al., 2019), which is about 6 orders of magnitude more massive than solar CME. By a completely naive calculation (beginning with the same volume as a solar CME but 106 more massive and expanding at a constant R-3 rate) a OU Andromedae mass CME would only drop off to an electron density of 10 cm-3 at a distance of 4-1/2 pc, well beyond the Roche sphere of even the largest A type stars. More realistically, the original CME volume of an OU Andromeda-mass CME would be considerably larger than a solar CME, but probably not by a factor of 106 larger, and the expansion rate for a vastly-larger initial mass would likely differ from the solar CME expansion rate.
¶ There may be a connection between variable stars and massive CMEs, considering TP-AGB stars as the mother of all variable stars that eject planetary-mass CKs. And indeed, the first CME event recorded on a star beyond the sun is a variable star with fast rotation, OU Andromedae (HR 9024). Additionally, 2 recent quasar scintillation studies, with ionization attributed to hot stars, involve variable stars. A 2019 study (Bignall et al., 2019) of scintillating quasar, PKS B1322−110, attributes scintillating ionization to hot variable star, Spica. A 2017 study (Walker et al., 2017) of two scintillating quasars, J1819+3845 and PKS1257-326.
– J1819+3845: Quasar line of sight passes through the Hill sphere of the rapidly-rotating hot variable star, Vega at a radial distance of 0.461 pc.
– PKS1257-326: Quasar line of sight passes through the Hill sphere of the hot variable star HD 112934 at a distance of 0.16 pc; however, the orientation of the scintillating plasma is not parallel with the line joining the star and the radio source, so HD 112934 is rejected as the host star in favor of Iota Centauri (Alhakim), at more than 10 times radial distance of 1.75 pc. But for the 1.75 pc radial distance of Alhakim to lie within the Hill sphere of Alhakim would minimally require an additional mass of 5 M☉, tripling the mass of the system, which the authors presume to be composed of planetary-mass paleons.
¶ Globular clusters are suggested to be the skeletons of early super globules that experienced runaway Pop II star formation, likely due elevated stellar luminosity in and around the Galactic bulge that eroded paleons below their minimum self-gravitating mass.
¶ In most super globules, paleon mop up outperformed the gravitational collapse of gas into Pop II stars; however, in crowded regions, such as the inner halo of spiral galaxies, intense stellar luminosity of the galactic bulge and galactic plane may have eroded paleons, interfering with gas accretion, allowing runaway gravitational collapse into Pop II stars. Then the added stellar luminosity of in situ Pop II stars within super globules further eroded paleons, potentially causing multiple star bursts that converted the remaining paleons to luminous gas and stars. Super globules within what would become the Galactic bulge and in the immediately surrounding halo evolved in a much more crowded environment than super globules in the more-distant Galactic halo, well into and beyond the future spiral disk. Frequent close encounters of paleons with hot stars and supernovae that eroded paleons faster than they could accrete, would have also caused many to fall below their minimum self gravitating mass and dissipate altogether. Most globular clusters formed within the first 2 billion years.
¶ Globular clusters are vastly smaller and denser than pithy dSphs, even prior to mass segregation (core collapse) of globular clusters, so presumably the gravitational collapse of gas into Pop II stars involved collapse into a dense core prior to converting into stars. While globular clusters to have a preferred rotation direction, overall their specific angular momentum is much lower than spiral galaxies, so presumably the friction of turbulent gas caused a loss of orbital velocity, densifying the gas prior to star formation.
¶ Globular clusters also compacted during mass segregation as their most massive stars sunk into a core following the resolution of binary pairs. Mass segregation presumably evaporates many of the lower mass stars out of globular clusters altogether, as the most massive stars sink inward.
¶ Additionally, low star formation efficiency resulted in vastly-lower globular cluster masses compared to their super globule progenitors, which also resulted in a greater degree of tidal stripping by the central bulge and the disk plane of the Galaxy.
¶ Giant elliptical galaxies have many times as many globular clusters as spiral galaxies, with M87 having as many as 13,000 globular clusters. Some studies have concluded that giant elliptical galaxies have little or no dark matter at all. While rotation is difficult to measure in ellipticals, a 2013 gravitational lensing study eliminates this difficulty by measuring Einstein rings of quasars by gravitational lensing. They concluded that DM if present at all does not exceed the amount of luminous matter and its density follows that of luminous matter, in sharp contrast with spiral galaxies (Margain and Chantry, 2013). Giant elliptical galaxies are often understood to have formed from the merger of large spiral galaxies, which apparently converted the bulk of DM to stars, including the presumed conversion of dSphs to globular clusters.
Molecular filaments in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs):
¶ Circa .1 parsec wide stellar-nursery filaments of molecular gas in IRDCs are counterintuitive from a gravitational collapse perspective, suggesting electromagnetic involvement. DSphs composed of predominantly of paleons that slammed into giant molecular clouds (GMCs) of the disk plane would bore innumerable holes through the densified gas of the GMCs. If the GMC gas were partially ionized, the paleon perforations would create parallel streams of moving charges, resulting in magnetic fields that tend to pinch together, the way two wires carrying electric current in the same direction magnetically attract one another.
¶ And if multiple filaments are magnetically attracted to one another, they may pinch together to form hub-filaments, with the central hub as massive as ≳ 1000 M⊙ pc-1 (Tokuda et al., 2019).
¶ Additionally, many dSphs have been tidally disrupted by repeated passage through the disk plane, distorting former paleon superclusters into elongated paleon streams that may be particularly efficient at creating filaments.
Gravitational collapse of neutrons prior to BBN into SMBHs, and their elastic rebound following BBN into twin-binary pairs of proto spiral galaxies:
¶ Early-onset Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), promoted by gravitational collapse of decoupled neutrons, may provide a pathway for baryonic DM, despite the approximately 6 fold increase in the baryon to photon ratio implied by baryonic DM. At at early-onset hydrogen recombination, a substantial pressure and density gradient would have caused photon diffusion from the hot dense neutron collapse centers into the relative voids in between. Additionally, the neutrons themselves were reaction products in BBN, unlike neutral helium in early-onset hydrogen recombination, so the early-onset BBN would have been photon enriched and neutron depleted. Then late-onset BBN in neutron collapse centers was photon depleted and nominally neutron enriched; however, a portion of the neutron overdensities would have decayed into protons in the delay of late-onset BBN, with neutrons having a half life of about 13 minutes.
¶ When late-onset BBN progressed to the center of neutron collapse centers and neutral neutrons were fused into positively-charged helium nuclei, primordial photon pressure caused the collapse centers to elastically rebound.
¶ Conventionally, BBN occurred from about 10 seconds to 10 minutes after the Big Bang, fusing neutrons with protons to predominantly form helium-4, and trace quantities of other light BBN fusion-product isotopes, namely deuterium, helium-3 and lithium-7, place tight constraints on BBN conditions. The universe appears to be depleted in primordial lithium by a factor of about 3 according to canonical (homogeneous) BBN theory, however, casting a shadow over the assumption of homogeneous canonical conditions at BBN.
¶ Prior to and during BBN, free neutrons were decoupled from primordial photons, allowing them to gravitationally collapse at the prevailing Jeans mass scale despite scattering off of other nucleons, presumably forming primordial super-massive black holes (SMBHs).
¶ BBN eventually fused all free neutrons that didn’t decay into protons into positively-charged nuclei, causing elastic electromagnetic rebound in collapsed neutron centers. The difference between gravitational collapse and elastic rebound is like the difference between the laminar flow into the suction end of a vacuum cleaner compared to the turbulent flow out of the discharge end, with a substantial portion of the elastic rebound over pressure energy dissipated in vortex rotation. ¶ The Jeans mass scale calculation of neutron collapse is far beyond the scope of this conceptual approach; however, the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies suggests the scale of the elastic rebound, with the Local Group suggested as a typical rebound center with a mass of ~ 2.4 x 108 M☉. The energy of elastic rebound was not able to expand like a supernova into the vacuum of space, but instead plowed into gas at the typical density found in stellar cores, forcing the rebounding material to turn back on itself in the form of eddies. Additionally, the self gravity of the rebounding over densities constrained the form of the rebound, by attempting to limit its surface area, tending to form bilaterally-symmetrical twin-binary clumps of gravitationally-bound material rebounding in opposing directions. And any radial-offset asymmetry in the elastic rebound would tend to create opposing angular momentum vectors.
¶ Gravitational collapse would presumably form solitary SMBHs in collapse centers,
such that only one of the twin-binary pair of rebound proto spiral galaxies would have acquired the primordial SMBH. In the twin-binary pair constituting Andromeda and The Milky Way, Andromeda apparently acquired the primordial SMBH, accounting for the SMBH mass discrepancy, with Andromeda having a (1.1-2.3) × 108 M☉ SMBH compared to the much-smaller 4 x 106 M☉ SMBH at the center of our Galaxy. Indeed, the asymmetrical apportioning of a primordial SMBH to one or other of the rebounding twin-binary proto spiral galaxies in the context of bilateral may be the origin of the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies.
¶ If quasar scintillation is caused by recent CMEs around hot, predominantly variable stars, then we may not yet have detected any primordial paleons, which puts a baryonic DM hypothesis on strictly theoretical grounds, similar to that of WIMP DM theories; however, modern cometary knots within planetary nebulae may lend paleon formation by CME a plausible modern analog not enjoyed by WIMP DM theories.
¶ Baryonic DM offers a predictive explanation for the absence of DM in globular clusters, its relative absence in galactic bulges (cuspy halo problem), and its possible dearth in giant elliptical galaxies, if baryonic DM converts to luminous gas and stars in regions of high stellar luminosity. By comparison, exotic DM theories rely on secondary mechanisms to prevent their falsification, such as the suggested expulsion of exotic DM by supernovae radiation from regions of high stellar luminosity.
¶ The suggested sequestering of Pop III star metallicity into moon-mass icy nuclei would make these icy nuclei by far the most prevalent objects of their size and composition in the universe. The gradual sedimentation of icy nuclei by accretion in quiescent paleons contrasts to the comparably-sudden release of potential energy by streaming instability of comparable-sized objects in protoplanetary disks that sublime the most volatile components and melt water ice, densifying the objects formed by streaming instability due to internal aqueous differentiation.
¶ In our own solar system, the sponge-like Saturn moon Hyperion is the likeliest paleon nucleus interloper in our solar system, with its mean density of only 0.544 g/cm3 in a 270 km Dia moon. The predominantly water-ice composition of Hyperion, with very little rocky material, suggests a paleon nucleus that has lost its most-volatile components, and its irregular shape even suggests explosive volatile loss.
¶ The prediction of the formation of spiral galaxies in twin-binary pairs with a bimodal distribution of SMBH masses should be statistically testable in small clusters of galaxies such as the Local Group.
¶ The gravitational collapse of decoupled helium at second helium recombination, accompanied by the diffusion of primordial photons out of gravitational collapse centers, is suggested to have caused early-onset hydrogen recombination in the relative voids between collapsing centers, when the baryon density was about 6 times higher than according to canonical ΛCDM recombination. This creates the necessary baryon density in today’s universe to accommodate baryonic DM.
¶ Hydrogen also participated in gravitational collapse with the diffusive loss of primordial photons. Subsequent fragmentation and sub fragmentation within the collapsing centers created the dark cores that condensed Population III stars. Presumably a significant portion of the Pop III star population evolved along the AGB star pathway, ending their short lives as planetary nebulae, complete with ejecting much of their stellar mass in the form of CMEs.
¶ The CME paleons of Pop III stars are suggested to have been largely planetary-mass gas globules that were self-gravitating and thus self sustaining. These paleons accreted the bulk of the loose gas within the ~ 108 M☉ super globules that didn’t collapse to form Pop II stars, converting primordial super globules into the dSphs of today. Super globules in the inner halo of proto spiral galaxies converted to globular clusters due to paleon erosion by intense stellar radiation. Paleons subsequently went dark by condensing the bulk of their stellar metallicity into moon-mass icy nuclei. Finally, IRDCs may be magnetically compressed into parsec-scale star-forming filaments by the perforation of IRDCs by paleon swarms that create parallel streams of moving charges that magnetically compress the dark clouds perpendicular to the paleon direction of travel.
¶ Baryonic DM necessarily increases the baryon to photon ratio by a factor of about 6 that predicts substantial deviations of BBN reaction product concentrations from observed values, which appear to preclude baryonic DM. But once again, the gravitational collapse of neutral particles (neutrons) decoupled from the primordial photons point to significant density gradients at the time of proton-neutron fusion that call into question canonical BBN. And as in early-onset hydrogen recombination, gravitational collapse of neutrons would have created a significant density and temperature gradient that caused early-onset BBN in the relative voids between collapsing neutron centers, and likely collapsing into primordial SMBHs. But unlike early-onset hydrogen recombination, early-onset BBN in the relative low-density low-temperature voids (with photon enrichment and neutron depletion), also requires a concomitant late-onset BBN within the high-density high-temperature collapsing neutron centers (with photon depletion and neutron enrichment).
¶ The Jeans mass scale of neutron collapse was followed by elastic rebound following BBN with the fusion of neutral neutrons to positive protons. The rebound process itself, however, suggests the formation of twin-binary pairs of clockwise and counterclockwise vortexes, with net zero angular momentum in the form of mirror-symmetric proto spiral galaxy pairs, like Andromeda and The Milky Way galaxies, where Andromeda apparently acquired the primordial SMBH.
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